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Genetics1

liv/env

TermDefinition
Genetics is the study of heredity.
Heredity is where an offspring has the qualities of their parents.
Alleles A variant form of a gene.
Trait is a physical feature of an organism such as ( eye color, hair, skin etc.).
Dominant An allele that is expressed in an organism phenotype by using one copy.
Recessive An allele that can be masked by a dominant gene and needs two copies. Ex( blue eyes would have to have the gene for blue eyes from both parents).
Genotype A set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait.
Phenotype Is the physical expression or characteristics of that trait.
Homozygous is having identical alleles for a single trait(the homozygous alleles can either be dominant or recessive).Ex RR or rr.
Heterozygous is having different alleles for a trait Ex: Rr
Punnet Square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotype of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Mutation IS when a DNA is damaged or changed EX:(ultraviolet radiation causing cancer).
Autosome(s) Any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome.
Sex chromosome A type of chromosome in the genome that is involved in the determination of the sex.
Sex-linked Is the phenotypic expression of an allele that determines the gender of the individual either male(XY) or female(XX).
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is an extremely long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers genetic characteristics in all life forms.
Ribonucleic Acid The nucleic acid that is used in key metabolic processes for all steps of protein synthesis in all living cells and carries the genetic information of many viruses. Unlike DNA the RNA is a single stranded nucleotide.
Replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Nitrogneous bases is simply a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. it is also the building blocks of DNA and RNA the four nitrogenous bases are (Adenine, Guanine,Thymine,and Cytosine).
Nucleotide is one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base (one of four chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine).
Created by: kwilliams5