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New Geneics Vocab

TermDefinition
genetics the study of heredity, or how the characteristics of living things are transmitted from one generation to the next
heredity the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring
alleles one of the possible forms of a gene
trait a characteristic or feature of an organism
dominant a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present
recessive a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene
genotype the set of genes in our DNA which is responsible for a particular trait
phenotype physical appearance or biochemical characteristic of an organism
homozygous when the alleles are identical for a single trait
heterozygous when the alleles are different from one another
punnet square a diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment
mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene
auto-some any chromosome not considered as a sex chromosome, or is not involved in sex determination
sex chromosome pair of mammal allosomes, determine the sex of an individual created in sexual reproduction
sex-linked tending to be associated with one sex or the other
deoxyribonucleic acid extremely long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers genetic characteristics
ribonucleic acid single-stranded molecules transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus or in the mitochondrion or chloroplast
replication process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA
nitrogenous bases a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base
nucleotide the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA.
Created by: 1002281