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Orchestra SPG/Final

Review and study guide for SPG/Final Exam

TermDefinition
Major Scale A series of 8 consecutive notes arranged starting with a whole step and ending with a half step. This scale sounds "happy." Order of Whole Steps and Half Steps is WWhWWWh
Natural Minor Sclae A series of 8 consecutive notes starting and ending with a whole step. This scale is not altered and sounds "sad." It shares the same key signature as its relative Major. The order of Whole steps and half steps is WhWWhWW.
Harmonic Minor Scale A series of 8 consecutive notes, raise the 7th note of the natural minor scale by one half step. (Middle Eastern sound)
Melodic Minor Scale A series of 8 consecutive notes, raise the 6th and 7th notes by one half step of the natural minor scale. The 6th and 7th notes are lowered one half step when descending down the minor scale.
D Major Key Signature, F# and C#, relative minor is b minor
G Major Key Signature, F#, relative minor is e minor
C Major Key Signature, No sharps and no flats, relative minor is a minor
A Major Key Signature, F#, C#, G#, relative minor is f# minor
F Major Key Signature, Bb, relative minor is d minor
Bb Major Key Signature, Bb and Eb, relative minor is g minor
Eb Major Key Signature, Bb, Eb, Ab, relative minor is c minor
b minor Key Signature, F# and C#, relative Major is D Major
e minor Key Signature, F#, relative Major is G Major
a minor Key Signature, no sharps and no flats, relative Major is C Major
f# minor Key Signature, F#, C#, G#, relative Major is A Major
d minor Key Signature, Bb, relative Major is F Major
g minor Key Signature, Bb and Eb, relative Major is Bb Major
c minor Key Signature, Bb, Eb, Ab, relative Major is Eb Major
Order of Sharps F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, E#, B#
Order of Flats Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, Fb
Process of identifying a Major key signature with sharps Identify the last sharp of the key signature, go up one half step - that is the name of your Major Key Signature.
Process of identifying a Major key signature with flats Identify the next to last flat in the key signature - that is the name of your Major Key Signature
Process of identifying a minor key signature Name the Major Key Signature - go down 3 half steps from the name of that Major Key - that is the name of your relative minor key signature.
Octave Also called P8, Interval
Major 7th Interval of seven notes from bottom to top (top note is in the key signature of bottom note)
Major 6th Interval of six notes from bottom to top (top note is in the key signature of bottom note)
minor 6th Interval of six notes from bottom to top (top note is not in the key signature of the bottom note)
minor 7th Interval of seven notes from bottom to top (top note is not in the key signature of bottom note)
Perfect 5th Interval also known as P5. The space between Cello, Viola, and Violin Strings
Perfect 4th Interval also known as P4. The space between Bass strings
Major 3rd Interval of three notes from bottom to top (top note is in the key signature of the bottom note).
minor 3rd Interval of three notes from bottom to top (top note is not in the key signature of bottom note)
Major 2nd Interval of two notes from bottom to top (top note is in the key signature of bottom note).
minor 2nd Interval of two notes from bottom to top (top note is not in the key signature of bottom note).
Major Chord Top two notes are in the key of the bottom note. 3 harmonious notes
minor chord 3 harmonious notes with the 3rd (middle note) lowered one half step - note in the key of the bottom note.
Diminished chord 3 harmonious notes with the 3rd and 5th (middle and top notes) lowered one half step - they are not in the key of the bottom note.
Augmented chord 3 harmonious notes with the 5th (top note) raised one half step.
Common Time 4/4 time signature also known as C
Time Signature Top note indicates how many beats in a measure, bottom note indicates they type of note that gets the beat
3/4 Three beats in a measure, the quarter note gets the beat
6/8 Six beats in a measure, the eighth note gets the beat
Spiccato Bouncing articulation, bow is placed at the balance point or frog
Staccato Short and spaced articulation, bow is placed in the middle or lower half of the bow
Legato Smooth and connected articulation
Marcato Strong and spaced notes, uses more bow than staccato articulation, March-like
Up Beat Also known as anacrusis or pick-up, note(s) before the first measure
Tonic First note of the scale
Dominant Fifth note of the scale
Antiquity Musical Time Period from 400-800 AD
Medieval Musical Time Period from 800-1400
Renaissance Musical Time Period from 1400-1600, Christopher Columbus, Da Vinci
Baroque Musical Time Period from 1600-1750, J.S. Bach, Terraced dynamics, harpsichord, Handel's Messiah (Hallelujah Chorus)
Classical Musical Time Period from 1750-1820, Vivaldi, Mozart, early Beethoven, Mendelsshon
Romantic Musical Time Period from 1820-1900, Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Civil War Time Period
Contemporary Musical Time Period from 1900 - Present, Gershwin, Copeland, Britten, John Williams
Sul Ponticello Special sound effect by playing over the bridge
Sul Tasto Special sound effect by playing over the fingerboard
Soundpost Small wooden piece found inside the instrument placed standing up underneath bridge
Leading Tone Raised 7th scale degree (note) of a scale
Relative Minor Shares the same key signature as Major scale
Parallel Minor Shares the same name as Major Scale
Lento Slow tempo
Dolce Sweet style
Presto Very fast tempo
Allegro Fast tempo
Andante Slow tempo
Moderato Moderate tempo - walking speed
pp pianissimo dynamic, very soft, played near fingerboard and upper half of bow
ff fortissimo dynamic, very loud, playered near bridge and lower half of bow with lots of arm weight
ritardondo gradually slow down the tempo
fermata musical symbol that means to hold the note at conductor's discretion
Accelerando gradually speed up the tempo
Ictus Point at which the beat occurs when conducting
Treble Clef G Clef, Violins read this clef
Alto Clef C Clef, Violas read this clef and is shaped like a capitol B
Bass Clef F Clef, Cellos and Basses read this clef and is shaped like half of a heart
Triplet Three eighth notes grouped together to equal one beat
Interval Distance between two notes
A The pitch the orchestra tunes from. 440 hz
BPM Beats Per Minute, the speed or metronome marking
Pedal Tone A note held out for long periods of time, usually in the bass section
Counter Melody rhythm is similar to melody, but contains repeated notes, pitch is different
Created by: laurawood7106