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APES AP Exam Review

APES 145 Ways and Remind Review Flashcards

Ionizing radiation enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer (ex gamma-X Rays-UV)
High Quality Energy organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (ex fossil fuel & nuclear)
Low Quality Energy disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
First Law of Thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
Natural radioactive decay unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta particles
Half life the time it takes for 1/2 the mass of a radioisotope to decay
Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level approximately 10 half-lives
Nuclear Fission nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Nuclear Fusion 2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
Ore a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Mineral Reserve identified deposits currently profitable to extract
Best solution to Energy shortage conservation and increase efficiency
Surface mining cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
Humus organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
Leaching removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
Illuviation deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)
Loam perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt, clay
Solutions to soil problems conservation tillage, crop rotation, contour plowing, organic fertilizers
Parts of the hydrologic cycle evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
Aquifer any water bearing layer in the ground
Cone of depression lowering of the water table around a pumping well
Salt water intrusion near the coast, over-pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific
During an El Nino year trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to SA
During a Non El Nino year: Easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America
Effects of El Nino upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters, SW US has increased rainfall, less Atlantic Hurricanes
Nitrogen fixing: bacteria because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by
Ammonification decomposers convert organic waste into ammonia
Nitrification ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
Assimilation inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins
Denitrification bacteria convert ammonia back into N
Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N because it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate rocks. Not part of the atsmosphere
Because soils contain very little phosphorus it is a major limiting factor for plant growth
Excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems by runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer discharge of sewage
Photosynthesis plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)
Aerobic respiration oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
Largest reservoirs of C carbonate rocks first, oceans second
Biotic/abiotic living & nonliving components of an ecosystem
Producer/Autotroph photosynthetic life
Major trophic levels producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer
Energy flow in food webs only 10% of the usable energy is transferred
Why is only 10% transferred in a trophic level usable energy lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey
Primary succession development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life (lava)
Secondary succession life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest)
Mutualism symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
Commensalism symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected
Parasitism relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
Biome large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
Carrying capacity the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
R strategist reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring
K strategist reproduce late, few, cared for offspring
Natural selection organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation
Malthus said human population cannot continue to increase, consequences will be war, famine & disease
Doubling time rule of 70 , 70 divided by the percent growth rate
Replacement level fertility the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
World Population is over 7.6 billion
Preindustrial stage birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
Transitional stage death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
Industrial stage decline in birth rate, population growth slows
Post Industrial stage low birth & death rates
Age structure diagrams with a broad base represents rapid growth
1st & 2nd most populated countries China & India
Most important thing affecting population growth low status of women
Ways to decrease birth rate family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties
Percent water on earth by type 97.5% seawater, 2.5% freshwater
Salinization of soil in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
Ways to conserve water (agriculture, drip/trickle irrigation) (industry,recycling) (home, use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures)
Point vs nonpoint sources (Point, from specific location such as pipe) (Nonpoint, from over an area such as runoff)
BOD biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
Eutrophication rapid algal growth caused by an excess of N & P
Hypoxia when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO drops & the water cannot support life
Minamata Disease mental impairments caused by mercury poisoning
Primary air pollutants are produced by humans & nature
Secondary pollutants formed by reaction of primary pollutants, such as SO 2, H2SO4
Particulate matter (source,effect,reduction) (burning fossil fuels & car exhaust) (reduces visibility & respiratory irritation) (filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy)
Nitrogen Oxides (Source: auto exhaust) (Effects: acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog & ozone) ( Equation for acid formation: NO + O2 = NO2 + H2O = HNO3) (Reduction: catalytic converter)
Sulfur oxides (Source: coal burning) (Effects: acid deposition, respiratory irritation, damages plants) (Equation for acid formation: SO2 + O2 = SO3 + H2O = H2SO4) (Reduction: scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel)
Sources of Carbon oxides auto exhaust, incomplete combustion
Ozone is formed by secondary pollutant, NO2+UV=NO+O O+O2=O3, with VOC's
Industrial smog found in cities that burn large amounts of coal
Photochemical smog formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NO, VOC,O)
Acid deposition caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
Effects of Greenhouse gases they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing earth to warm
Effects of global warming rising sea level (thermal expansion), extreme weather, droughts (famine), extinctions
Ozone depletion caused by CFC's, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone
Effects of ozone depletion increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
Love Canal, NY chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth defects & cancer
Municipal solid waste is mostly paper
Most municipal waste is landfilled
Sanitary landfill problems and solutions (leachate, liner with collection system) (methane gas, collect gas and burn) (volume of garbage, compact & reduce)
Incineration advantages volume of waste reduced by 90% & waste heat can be used
Incineration disadvantages toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride-dioxin), scrubbers & electrostatic precipitates needed, ash disposal
Best way to solve waste problem reduce the amounts of waste at the source
Keystone species species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others
Indicator species species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged
Most endangered species have a small range, require large territory or live on an island
In natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by predators, diseases, parasites
Major insecticide groups and examples (chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT) (organophosphates, malathion) (carbamates, aldicarb)
Pesticide pros saves lives from insect transmitted disease, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers
Pesticide cons genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification
Natural pest control better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
Electricity is generated by using steam (from water boiled by fossils fuels or nuclear) or falling water to turn a generator
Petroleum forms from microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by heat & pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons
Pros of petroleum cheap, easily transported, high quality energy
Cons of petroleum reserves depleted soon, pollution during drilling, transport and refining, burning makes CO2
Steps in coal formation peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
Major parts of a nuclear reactor core, control rods, steam generator, turbine, containment building
Two most serious nuclear accidents (Chernobyl,Ukraine) (Three Mile Island, PA)
Alternate energy sources wind, solar, waves, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells
LD50 the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
Mutagen, Teratogen, Carcinogen causes hereditary changes, Fetus deformities, cancer
Multiple use US public land National Forest & National Resource lands
Moderately restricted use land National Wildlife Refuges
Restricted Use lands National Parks, National Wilderness Preservation System
Type I Survivorship Curves low mortality at birth, survive to old age, and then die (humans, annual plants)
Density dependent factors competition, parasitism, predation
Density independent factors fires, floods, extreme cold
Biotic potential maximum amount of offspring a species can have
Effects of Global Warming bleaching of coral reefs, animals and plants forced out of their current range, melting glaciers, rising sea level, droughts, spread of infectious diseases and more extreme weather conditions.
Exotic species are known as invasive species because they often can grow at an uncontrolled rate because they have no natural predators, disrupt the balance of the ecosystem and have no competition because they kill off many natural inhabitants.
Forests regulate climate, control water runoff, produce oxygen and provide food and shelter for many creatures.
Clear cutting is bad because it increases soil erosion dramatically, increases nitrate runoff into water bodies, makes it hard for an area to recover, leaves animals no place to live and can lead to extinctions.
Selective Cutting harvesting only mature trees of certain species and size. More expensive but less disruptive to wildlife than clear cutting.
Utilitarianism is the belief that something is right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people for the longest time.
Conservation is the management of a resource to make certain to produces the greatest benefit to humans in the future.
Preservation is the concept that the land should be kept in its natural state- never touched or developed.
NIMBY public protests cause wastes and other pollutants to be dumped in someone else's backyard. Mostly hurts the poor who cannot pay for representation to fight against potential pollution. Not In My Back Yard
Range of Tolerance minimum and maximum levels of conditions in which organisms can survive.
1.5 billion people lack access to clean drinking water
75% of water pollution in the US comes from soil erosion, atmospheric deposition and surface runoff.
95% of water pollution in developing countries come from raw sewage (high population growth without the money for treatment plants)
The US uses _________of all pesticides used in world 77%
The troposphere contains __________ and stratosphere contains _____________ weather (the layer we exist ) the ozone layer
The atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and a small amount of argon, carbon dioxide, water, salt and dust.
Weather moves from west to east across America
Bioaccumulation is the selective absorption and storage of a great variety of molecules
Biomagnification is a continued increase in the concentration of pollutants in higher levels of a food chain.
Acute effects are caused by a single exposure to a toxin and results in an immediate health crisis of some sort.
Chronic effects are long lasting and can result from a single exposure of a very toxic substance or a continuous exposure to the toxin.
Salt water intrusion is the movement of salt water into freshwater aquifers in coastal areas where groundwater is withdrawn faster than it's replenished
Watershed land surface and groundwater aquifers drained by a particular river system.
Land surface Forests cover 32% 11% is used for crops 26% is range and pasture.
99% of all the species that ever existed are now extinct but the average rate of extinction was one species per decade.
Human have caused extinction rates of hundreds to thousands of species per YEAR. If these trends continue, 1/3 to 2/3 of all current species will be lost by the year 2050.
Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur: at plate boundaries
Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act requires coal strip mines to reclaim the land
Madrid Protocol Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 years in Antarctica
Safe Drinking Water Act set maximum contaminant levels for pollutants that may have adverse effects on human health
Clean Water Act set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways aim to make surface waters swimmable and fishable
Water Quality Act attempt to reduce non-point source pollution
Ocean Dumping Ban Act bans ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste
National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Impact Statements must be done before any project affecting federal lands can be started
Clean Air Act Set emission standards for cars and limits for release of air pollutants
Kyoto Protocol controls global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
Montreal Protocol phaseout of ozone depleting substances
Resource Conservation & Recovery Act controls hazardous waste with a cradle to grave system
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation & Liability Act Superfund, designed to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites
Endangered Species Act identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act regulates the effectiveness of pesticides
Food Quality Protection Act set pesticide limits in food and all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
Low Level Radioactive Policy Act all states must have facilities to handle low level radioactive wastes
Nuclear Waste Policy Act US government must develop a high level nuclear waste site by 2015
Migratory Bird Treaty Act prohibits shooting non-game migratory birds
Wilderness Act recognizes wilderness areas and strives to preserve them by keeping them road and development free
Delaney Clause prohibits adding cancer causing agents to food
Agenda 21 UN program to make development environmentally and socially sustainable in the 21st century (sustainable development)
London Dumping Convention (Law of the Sea) international agreement banning ocean dumping of plastics, oil and industry waste
3 billion people lack good sanitation need to prevent communicable diseases from spreading
Winds are named for the direction they come from. Westerlies/Easterlies
Type II Survivorship Curve uniform death rates, subject to predation (insects, birds)
Type III Survivorship Curve high mortality at birth but long lifespans otherwise (turtles, trees)
Effects of Carbon Oxides CO binds to hemoglobin reducing blood's ability to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming
Reduction of Carbon Oxides catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit
Examples of Greenhouse Gases H2O, CO2, O3, methane (CH4), CFC's
Examples of Primary Air Pollutants CO,CO2,SO2,NO,hydrocarbons, particulates
Effects of Ozone respiratory irritant, plant damage
Ways to Reduce Ozone depletion reduce NO emissions & VOCs
Age structure diagrams with a narrow base represents negative growth
Age structure diagrams with a uniform shape represents zero growth
Divergent Boundaries spread, such as the mid-ocean ridges in the mid Atlantic between Iceland and the North American Plates
Convergent Boundaries move towards each other, such as trenches, subduction zones, Andes Mountains, Himalayan Mountains
Transform Boundaries slide past one another, such as the San Andreas Fault in California
The layers of the atmosphere from the surface up to space Trophosphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere
The three atmospheric convection cells starting at the equator Hadley (HOT), Ferrell, Polar (COLD)
The bulk of the planet's freshwater is found frozen areas of the planet
An aquifer is an underground layer of porous rock between impermeable rock filled with water
4 major properties of water Cohesion, Adhesion, Capillarity, Universal Solvent, High Specific heat
The types of symbiotic relationships, and how is each species impacted Mutualism (+,+) Commensalism (+,0) Parasitism (+, -) Competition (-,-) Ammensalism (-,0)
A keystone species a species which serves to keep all other populations in balance in an ecosystem
Biodiversity is the number of species in an area and is a measure of the health of an ecosystem. Greater is better.
Roughly what percentage of energy is transferred between trophic levels 10%
This trophic level has to be the largest producers
The primary energy source for terrestrial ecosystems the Sun
The biogeochemical cycle that does not utilize the atmosphere phosphorus
Atmospheric nitrogen is converted to a usable form for plants by Nitrogen fixing bacteria - Nitrogen fixation & ammonification
Water leaving plants through their stoma is called transpiration
R-strategist? Example? r=rapid reproduction (rabbits, mice)
Carrying capacity the maximum population size based on ecosystem limits
Primary and secondary succession the presence of soil indicates secondary succession no presence of soil indicates primary, such as after a lava flow, abandoned parking lots, concrete roads
K-strategist? Example? slow population growth (humans, elephant)
Population in the US ~330 million
Ecological impact = T-technology X A-affluency X P-population = E- ecological impact
The world population graph is a _________ curve over the past 100 years J curve or exponential growth curve
Population of developed countries ~1.5 billion
The four phases of the demographic transition Preindustrial, Transitional, Industrial, Post Industrial
To calculate population doubling time Rule of 70 (70/%growth rate)
GMO refers to Genetically modified organism
Monoculture plantations having low genetic diversity are vulnerable to … disease, pests
Integrated pest management (IPM) Altering agriculture to avoid greatest detriment from insects
Cisgenic organism with genes from same species
Transgenic organism with genes from different species
Federal Land Reserves include National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, Wilderness Lands
World land use= 32% Forest, 26% Rangeland, 11% cropland
The major types of forestry Clear Cutting, Selective Cutting, Plantation forests
Fracking or Hydraulic Fracturing is using water and solvents under pressure to break shale underground and release natural gas
Major surface mining techniques = Strip mining, contour mining, open pit, mountaintop removal
Acid mine drainage Acidic water exiting from a subsurface mine, very detrimental to aquatic ecosystems
Commercial overfishing of the world's oceans is an example of what ecological concept Tragedy of the commons
The major types of commercial fishing long line, fish farming, purse seine, trawl line, dredging
All major fisheries on the planet are in decline
Know the prefixes and scientific notations for each. Kilo, Mega, Giga also Centi, Milli, Micro Kilo - 10^3 Mega 10^6 Giga 10^9 3.
We can increase the output of every system by increasing the efficiency of the process
The US generates the bulk of its power from … natural gas
Why do the fossil fuels have a high net energy? Ease of extraction
What is the primary fuel for Nuclear power? Uranium 235
Tar Sands are full of bitumen, where are the bulk of the tar sands and what is bitumen? Tar sands are predominantly found in Alberta, Canada. Bitumen is dense oil which must be refined for use.
The US currently obtains the greatest amount of renewable energy from this source. Hydroelectric Power
Photovoltaic cells utilize what mineral to capture solar energy? Silicon
Compared to non-renewable energy, what are three benefits of renewable energy? Minimal (if any) CO2 emissions; No NOX, SO2, PM; endless supply; Wide region of application
What are 3 major outdoor air pollutants? Nox, SO2, PM10 & PM2.5, VOCs
Primary pollutants are ___________emitted directly
What are 3 indoor air pollutants Cigarette Smoke, Asbestos, Radon, Formaldehyde, Mold
Secondary pollutants are primary pollutants that have reacted in air
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