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Chapter 6

Anatomy Bio 105

QuestionAnswer
The ability to shorten the skeletal muscle with force Contractility
The ability of skeletal muscle to respond with a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
The ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the Epimysium
What's an another connective tissue located outside the epimysium that separates muscles? Fascia
Fasciculi (tons of visible muscle bundles) surrounded by loose connective tissue is called? Perimysium
Each muscle fiber is a Single cylindrical cell containing many nuclei
Each fiber is surrounded by by a connective tissue sheath called Endomysium
The cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with Myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers: 1. Actin Myofilaments 2. Myosin Myofilaments
Actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called Sarcomeres
The arrangement of actin and myofilaments give a what type of appearance? Banded
The charge difference across the membrane is called the Resting Membrane Potential
The brief reversal back of a charge is called the Action Potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
A single motor neuron is called a Motor Unit
An enlarged nerve terminal is the Presynaptic Terminal
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is called the Synaptic Cleft
Muscle fiber between the presynaptic terminal Postsynaptic Terminal
Each preysnaptic terminal contains Synaptic Vesicles
Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine
Enzymes that break down the acetylcholine that is released is called the Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin during contractions is called Sliding Filament Mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential is called the Muscle Twitch
A muscle fiber that will not respond to stimulus until reached to a certain level is called the Threshold
The phenomenon that only responds when reached to a certain level is the All-Or-None Response
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of contraction is the Lag Phase
Time of contraction Contraction Phase
The relaxation time for muscles is called the Relaxation Phase
When the muscles remain contracted without relaxation, this is called Tetany
The increase of number of motor units being activated is called Recruitment
ATP needed for energy for muscle contractions
Where is the ATP produced? Mitochondria
ATP degenerates what? ADP
High energy molecules are called Creatine Phosphate
Anaerobic Respiration without oxygen
Aerobic Respiration with oxygen and more efficient
Constant tension in the contracted muscles for a long period of time Muscle Tone
Origin most stationary end of a muscle
Insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
Synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
Intrinsic Foot Muscles flex, extend, and abduct
Hamstring Muscles posterior to thigh muscles, flexes the leg and extends the thigh
Occipitofrontalis raises the eybrows
Orbicularis Oculi closes eyelids and causes "crow's feet"
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Lavator Labii Superioris sneering
Depressor Anguli Oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Sternocleidomastoid neck muscle and prime mover, rotates and abducts head
Orbicularis Oris puckers lips
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus Anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes arm
Deltoid attaches the humerus to scapula and clavice, major abducted of the upper limb
Triceps Brachii extends forearm
Biceps Brachii flexes forearm
Brachioradalis flexes and supinates the forearm
Flexor carpi flexes wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor Digitorum extends the fingers
Gluteus maximus buttocks
Quadriceps Femoris extends legs, anterior the thigh muscle
Sartorius tailors muscle, flexes the thigh
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
Most involved in breathing 1. External Intercoastals 2. Internal Intercoastals
muscle fiber tendon
satorius thigh
rectus abdominis abdominal muscle
rectus femoris upper thigh
quadriceps lower thigh
Created by: ababbyb05