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BIO 1101 Final

Diversity and Ecosystem

most diverse of all the phyla in terms of number of species Arthropods
Examples of arthropod Includes insects, arachnids (e.g. spiders), crustaceans, centipedes, and millipedes
Community interactions with arthropods many pollinators; ectoparasites
are a minor phyla in terms of number of species, but if any animal phyla were to survive a nuclear apocalypse, it would be these microscopic guys Tardigrades (water bears)
Can withstand completely drying out for years (at least 30) at a time Tardigrades (water bears)
Can withstand Temperatures between -458 and 300 °F Tardigrades (water bears)
Can withstand Pressures 6 times that found in the deepest ocean trenches Tardigrades (water bears)
Can withstand Ionizing radiation at 100’s of times higher than we can withstand Tardigrades (water bears)
Where have Tardigrades (water bears) been sent To space
Largely primary consumers but sometimes eat and/or are eaten by roundworms Tardigrades (water bears)
Levels at which biodiversity can be defined from number of different ecosystems, to number of different species, to genetic diversity within species
Which is more diverse, plants animals or fungi? Animals then plants then fungi
How many animal phyla are there Aprrox 35
Challenges faced by being a plant (2) Living on land and being stationary
What problems can living on land and being stationary have for plants? Lead to gravity and desiccation
Why were The first plants were small and low to the ground All of their water and nutrients are distributed by diffusion
Examples of non-vascular plants mosses hornworts liverworsts
Non vascular plants are typically small and low to the ground
The first big diversification event in plants occurred when plants evolved vessels to transport water/nutrients (vascular plants)
Plants evolution of vascular tissue made what possible? Gave them the ability to grow tall and deeper roots. They no longer had to rely on diffusion
Vascular seedless plant examples ferns horsetails
Are vascular plants more or less reliant on nearby water sources than non-vascular plants Less reliant but still need water to reproduce
extremely important evolutionary innovation for plants Seeds
What do seeds carry? Embryo along with everything the plant needs to help that embryo get it started
What helped overcome plants' need for water to reproduce? Seeds
What allowed plants to live in more arid climates? Seeds
Two groups of plants with seeds gymnosperms and angiosperms
Earliest seed plants Gymnosperms
Resproduce via cones Gymnnosperms
Male cones produce Pollen
Female cones produce eggs
A fertilized cone egg produces what seed
Are gymnosperms pollinated by animals? no
Has flowers Angiosperms
Does not have flowers Gymnosperms
Dominant group of plants Angiosperms
Problem for gymnosperms release billions of pollen grains for each that reach female cones
What uses animals to pollinate their flowers? Angiosperms
Benefit of having animals pollinate flowers? Less pollen being wasted
How can plants trick animals into pollinating them? Make the male species think that it is a female of the same species. Bribe animals to pollinate by offering nectar or some other reqard
Common plant pollinators bees moths hummingbirds butterflies flies
How do animals hep the community? Pollinating and dispersing seeds
Examples of fungi Mushrooms mold yeast
The majority of fungi is in the form of what? Small thread like cells (hyphae).
Is the majority of fungal growth above or below the surface? Below
Largest organism in the world Yellow honey mushroom fingus
How does fungus get food? Decompose dead things
Important mutualistic relationship between most land plants and fungi: mycorrhizae
Plants feed the fungi carbohydrates and, in return, the fungi transfer water and minerals like nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil to the plant mycorrhizae
mutualistic relationship between algae or cyanobacteria and fungus lichens
Many fungi are what? Parasitic
The closer to the equater the more or less diverse? more
Tthe closer you move to the poles the more or less diverse it gets? Less
Species richness also means Number of species
What drives differences in biodiversity? Species richness
Constant ow level of disturbance means There is a mix of colonizers and climax species (succession)
Species that are only found in a localized area are said to be Endemic
Why should we care about biodiversity? There is inherent value in every species Almost all of our medicines have come from compounds made by other species.
benefits to humans based on having functioning ecosystems (often need biodiversity to function correctly) Ecosytem services
Created by: Symone_2015
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