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BSC105 Muscles

ability for muscle to contract contractility
4 major characteristics of muscle contraction contractility, excitability, elasticity, and extensibility
muscle cells muscle fibers
anterior thigh muscle quadriceps femoris
posterior thigh muscle hamstrings
back muscles latissimus dorsi
muscles responsible for smiling zygomaticus
muscles responsible for sneering levator labil superioris
puckers mouth orbicularis oris
Thin myofilaments. resemble pearls Actin Myofilaments
thick myofilaments. resembles golf clubs Myosin myofilaments
chewing mastication
lateral neck muscle and prime mover. rotates and abducts the head Sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back. responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect erector spinae
extends the forearm. occupies the posterior compartment of the arm triceps brachii
flexes the forearm. occupies the anterior compartment of the arm biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
buttocks gluteus maxiumus
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscle Quadriceps femoris
tailors muscle, flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles: flexes the leg and extends the thigh hamstring muscles
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin myofilaments and myosin myoflaments
nerve cells that carry action potentials to the skeletal muscle fibers. Motor neurons
a single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
the brief reversal back of the charge action potential
each branch that connects to the muscle synapse or neuromusclular junction
transmitter acetylcholine
the sliding of actin past myosin filaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
contract quickly and fatigue quickly. well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism fast twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow twitch fibers
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reacher a level threshold
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of contract lag phase
the time of contraction contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscles remains contracted without leaving tetany
the increase in number of motor until being activated recruitment
Adenosine triphosphate- produced in the mitochondria ATP
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic oxygen
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cell Muscle fatigue
(equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change Isometric
(equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction isotonic
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time Muscle tone
the most stationary end of the muscle origin (head)
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscles between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons Retinaculum
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
accomplishes quiet breathing. dome shaped diaphragm
attaches the humerus to scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limbs deltoid
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm Latissimus dorsi
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
form the calf muscle. they join to form the calcaneal tendon gastrocnemius and soleus
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
flattens the cheeks buccinator
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
on each side of the linea alba is the rectus abdominis
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well muscled person to appear segment Tendinous inscriptions
consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle Linea Alba
among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime mover
ADP (adenosine Diphosphate) plus phosphate
this enzymatic breakdown ensures that one action potential in the neuron yields only one action potetial in the skeletal muscle Acetycholinesterase
another connective tissue located outside the epimysium Fascia
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers



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