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Exam 4

Ch 40,

Single Cell surface area:
two layers of cells surface area:
Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans Tissues, organs, organ systems
Connective Tissue - loose connective tissue - fibrous connective tissue - bone - cartilage - adipose tissue - blood
Loose connective tissue collagenous fiber and elastic fiber
Cartilage chondrocytes and chondroitin sulfate
fibrous connective tissue nuclei
adipose tissue fat droplets
bone central canal and osteon
blood white blood cells, red blood cells, plasma
Muscle Tissue -Skeletal - Smooth - Cardiac
Skeletal Muscle sarcomere, muscle fiber, and multiple nuclei
cardiac muscle nucleus, intercalated disk
smooth muscle nucleus, muscle fibers
Nervous Tissue Neuron
Neuron dendrites, cell body, axon, glial cells, blood vessels
Organ System - Digestive - Circulatory - Respiratory - Immune and lymphatic - Excretory - Endocrine - Reproductive - Nervous - Integumentary - Skeletal - Muscular
Digestive : Main Components Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus
Digestive: Main Functions Food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)
Circulatory: Main Components Heart, blood vessels, blood
Circulatory: Main Functions Internal distribution of materials
Respiratory: Main Components Lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
Respiratory: Main Functions gas exchange (uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide)
Immune and lymphatic: Main Components Bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells
Immune and lymphatic: Main Functions Body Defense ( fighting infections and cancer)
Excretory: Main Components Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Excretory: Main Functions Disposal of metabolic wastes; regulation of osmotic balance of blood
Endocrine: Main Components Pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, and other hormone-secreting glands
Endocrine: Main Functions Coordination of body activities (such as digestion and metabolism)
Reproductive: Main Components Ovaries or testes, and associated organs
Reproductive: Main Functions Reproduction
Nervous: Main Components Brain, Spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
Nervous: Main Functions Coordination of body activities; detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to them
Integumentary: Main Components skin and its derivatives (hair, claws, skin glands)
Integumentary: Main Functions Protection against mechanical injury, infection, drying out, thermoregulation
Skeletal: Main Components Skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage)
Skeletal: Main Functions Body suport, protection of internal organs, movement
Muscular: Main Components Skeletal muscles
Muscular: Main Functions Locomotion and other movement
Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: -Insulation (skin, feathers, fur, blubber) -Circulatory adaptations (vasodialator, constrictor, countercurrent exchange) -Cooling by evaporative heat loss (sweating, panting) -Behavioral responses -Adjusting metabolic heat production
Acclimatization in Thermoregulation -Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes -some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells -Thermoregulation
Torpor and Energy Conservation -Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases -Torpor enables animals to save energy -Hibernation is long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity
Population ecology Study of populations in relation to their environment
Population ecology explores... Biotic and abiotic factors influence abundance, dispersion, age structure of populations
Population Group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area.
Density Number of individuals per unit area or volume
Dispersion The pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
Immigration Influx of new individuals from other areas
Emigration The movement of individuals out of a population and into other locations.
Territoriality The defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
Demography The study of these vital statistics of populations and how they change over time
Created by: savepeople