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Env Toxicology Final

Organ toxicity, detoxification, genotoxicology, and LCA

QuestionAnswer
T or F The organ with the highest [ ] of contaminant is the target organ. F Although this may be the case, it is not always true.
Quantitative vs qualitative effects quantitative effects affect numbers of cells of a certain type. qualitative effects affect the function of the cell.
An oxidized contaminant will become _____ hydrophilic. a) more b) less c) stay the same a) more
What is the word which describes a situation where a chemical is only toxic once metabolized? Bioactivation/bioactivated
Phases of biotransformation I- cytochrome p450 in the smooth ER II- cytoplasmic rxns
Reactions which may occur in the cytoplasm conjugation rxn- makes more hydrophilic and adds a tag glucuronidation- most common (exrete thru SI) amino acid conjugation- glycine addition sulfonation- into a sulfate methylation- the molecule has same polarity
The correct nitrogenous base pairs are: a) AC GT b)AT GC c)CA GU b) AT and GC pneumonic device: ATco and GeiCo
What is a chromosome? A long DNA structure with genes. Humans have 23 pairs
Humans have _________ somatic cells and ________ gametes. a) haploid; diploid b)aneuploid; haploid c) diploid; aneuploid d) diploid; haploid d) Humans have diploid (paired) somatic cells and haploid gametes
What is the purpose of colchicine in a karyotype? Colchicine prevents microtubule depolymerization, which keeps the cells in metaphase.
What is the type of microscopy used in a karyotype? Fluorescence
Order the following: RNA, translation, transcription, polypeptides Transcription>RNA>translation>polypeptides
Define allele a different form of the same gene. Analogy: An apple and an orange are both different fruit (genes). A gala apple and a granny smith are both apples (same gene) but taste different and have different colors (Different alleles).
A heritable mutation occurs in: a) somatic cells b) gamete cells c)both d) neither b)gametes Gametes have are the only cells which will pass on genetic data to offspring.
An example of a spontaneous mutation Crossovers during transcription
Types of small scale mutations point mutations (single nucleotide) silent base pair substitution mis-sense substitution non-sense substitution
Differentiate between non-sense and mis-sense substitutions Nonsense- stop codon made Mis-sense- different amino acid generated
If a purine matches with a pyrimidine, what type of mutation is it? Transition
What is deamination? Cytosine converts to uracil which pairs with adenine
Explain thymine diamers UV radiation causes diamers of thymine (T-T), which bulge. The diamers are cut out but it causes issues in repair.
Two things which can cause transversions. oxidative radicals and depurination
An insertion or deletion will cause what type of mutation? Frame shift
Depurination can be caused by what? activated PAH and ionizing radiation.
What is clastogenecity? DNA damage
What is aneuploidy? The addition or deletion of a chromosome
In vitro vs. in vivo in vitro= in vitamins= test tubes in vivo= in life
Examples of in vitro mutation tests AMES and reverse mutation in mammalian cell lines
Describe the AMES test 4 auxotrophic salmonella strains and 1 auxotrophic E. coli strain are subjected to pure and activated toxins to produce reverse mutations. Different strains require different types of mutations to function, showing the type of mutation the toxin causes.
Examples of in vitro clastogenecity/aneuploidy tests Karyotyping and micronucleus test
Example of in vivo test Comet assay - treat and centrifuge cells and if the cell walls break, the electrophoresis will show movement
Cradle to gate vs cradle to grave Cradle to gate stops with the end of the manufacturing process. Cradle to grave includes end of life processes.
Why use an LCA? Incorporate environmental consequence into decision making, find inefficiencies/improvements, and marketing.
What is included in the scope of an LCA? -specific products and processes - type of LCA - the functional unit - flowcharts and system boundaries
Comparative LCA vs stand alone A comparative LCA compares 2+ products and has to take use time into account for fairness
Parts of the Inventory Analysis Flow chart, data, and calculations
What is the technosphere? Material deemed to be under human control
LCI vs LCIA LCI= life cycle inventory LCIA= life cycle impact analysis
primary LCIA examines physical properties and consequences
secondary LCIA examines immediate and direct consequences
tertiary LCIA examines long term consequences
End point vs midpoint End point is damage oriented, mid point is problem oriented
Characterization factors vs normalization The characterization factor transforms the results to a uniform unit for each characteristic (e.g., GWP uses CO2 equivalents). Normalization relates the data to a reference to determine the magnitude of impact (e.g., The GWP of one item in one year)
Define EHI E=egalitarian H=heirarchist I=individualist
Why is weighting not recommended? Weighting uses judgement to adjust the weight/seriousness of characteristics. People have different judgements, so these values are not comparable or super accurate
Created by: swilson67