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Exam 3 Micro

Innate Immunology pt 2

proteins secreted by a variety of cells and act to change to behavior of other cells including activation of specific cells and physiologic changes. Cytokines
Chemokines are a subgroup of cytokines that act as chemoattractants to leukocytes.​ Chemokines
acts on self Autocrine
acts on nearby cells Paracrine
Type 1 interferons of cytokines and chemokines are INF - alpha INF - beta
anti-viral Interferons stimulate both infected and noninfected cells into an ____state?
NK and NKT (secrete granzyme & proferin) cells After these cells are activated, they attack infected cells
MICA and MICB Cytokines and chemokines (soluble defensins) upregulate what stress cell markers?
resist viral replication Cytokines and chemokines cause infected and non-infected cells to...
interleukin-1β​ IL-1β
tumor necrosis factor α​ TNFα
interleukin 6​ IL-6
chemokine CXCL8 is a
IL-8 interleukin 8​ (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 ​is also known as
interleukin 12​ IL-12
Rheumatoid arthritis​, Psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, Colitis Diseases associated with TNFα​ are:
Antibodies [E.g. adalimumab (Humara)] Decoy receptors​ [E.g. etanercept (Enbrel)]​ Mechanisms of blocking​ by targeting TNF - alpha are :
CXCL8 This chemokine recruits neutrophils from blood to the site of infection
the development of new drug targets Understanding the mechanisms of disease can help
Engulfment and degradation of microbes and debris by cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and B cells. Phagocytosis
cell surface receptors and clathrin-coated pits. Phagocytosis is mediated by what receptors and pits?
marcopinocytosis and is clathrin-independent Dendritic cells uptake large amounts of fluid by...
1. Phagocytosis is mediated by receptors such as PRRs, complement receptors, Fc receptors, scavenger receptors and more.​ Step 1 of Phagocytosis
2. . Cellular projections (pseudopodia) engulf the pathogen through endocytosis. Step 2 of Phagocytosis
3. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes (phagolysosomes) Step 3 of Phagocytosis
Lysosomes use acid hydrolases, proteases, nucleases and lipases to digest pathogens​ Use of oxygen radicals that are toxic to microbes cause an oxidative burst.​ During Step 3 of Phagocytosis:
4. Changes occur in the phagocyte after ingesting pathogen Step 4 of Phagocytosis
the increase secretion of cytokines and chemokines. ​ Ingestion of pathogens activates the phagocytes and leads to...
is trying to rid the body of disease but can damage the tissues if too strong Inflammation
redness, swelling, heat, and pain Symptoms of inflammation include
C3a, C4a, C5a Complement Anaphylotoxins
major Opsonin Complement C3b
receptors Phagocytosis is mediated by what
Created by: 576937752774223