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Body Systems Test

physical breakdown of food mechanical digestion
enzymes break down food into usable pieces chemical digestion
enzyme amylase-breaks down carbs into simple sugars saliva
long muscular tube that moves food down to the stomach using peristalsis(wave-like motion) esophagus
muscular sac that releases acid and enzymes to break down food (turns food into chyme) stomach
(~20 ft long) most absorption of nutrients happens here small intestine
little hair-like structures that increase surface area for absorption villi
produces hormones that regulate blood, sugar, and enzymes that break down carbs, proteins pancreas
helps with fat digestion, produces bile(fluid with lipids and salts) liver
(~5 ft long) (aka colon) removes water from undigested material-diarrhea or constipation large intestine
What are the digestive system disorders? appendicitis, Crohn's Disease, celiac disease, and ulcers
tissue that connects bone to bone ligaments
tissue that connects muscle to bone tendons
skull, spine, ribs, sternum axial skeleton
limbs(arms, legs) appendicular skeleton
What are the skeletal system disorders? arthritis, scoliosis, and osteoporosis
How many bones does an adult have? Infant? 206; 270
How many muscles do we have? over 650
involuntary muscles; ex: stomach; linings of organs smooth muscles
voluntary muscles; attached to the bone; es: bicep, tricep skeletal muscles
involuntary muscles; forms the walls of the heart cardiac muscles
What the problems for the muscular system? muscular dystrophy; tendonitis
releases egg to be fertilized ovulation
28 day cycle (uteran wall sloughs off) menstration
fertilized egg zygote
fertilized egg to 8 weeks embryo
8 weeks to birth fetus
What are the problems for the Integumentary system? sun burn and skin cancer
brain and spinal cord CNS
nerves that extend from the spinal cord PNS
nerve cells that receive and transmit messages neurons
messages from body to CNS sensory neuron
connect neurons (sensory and motor) interneurons
messages to the body from CNS (makes us move) motor neurons
outer layer of the skin epidermis
layer of the skin that contains the hair follicle, glands, nerves, and blood vessels dermis
coloring of skin; protects from UV radiation melanin
rids body of waste(salts), cools body down sweat glands
oil producing gland (pimple) sebaceous gland
dead cells made of keratin (compacted) nails
dead cells with keratin; help protect skin hair
part of the PNS that controls involuntary functions autonomic
part of PNS that controls voluntary actions somatic
Endocrine glands that control body functions (growth, reproduction) pituitary glands
Endocrine gland that produces insulin/ glucagon (blood sugar) pancreas
endocrine gland that produces testosterone (sperm production) testes
endocrine gland that produces estrogen (egg production; increase fat stores; sodium tention) ovaries
endocrine gland that produces epinephrine(adrenaline) and dopamine(w/ reward) adrenal medulla
endocrine gland that responds to stress adrenal cortex
endocrine gland the produces hormones that deal w/ metabolism thyroid
endocrine gland that links nervous system(behavior chemicals-sleep, mood-sleep=melatonin) hypothalamus
What are the 5 main parts of the circulatory system? blood, heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
made in bone marrow, carries carbon dioxide(hemoglobin) and nutrients and rids of carbon dioxide RBC
help fight off pathogens, made in lymphnodes (phagocytes) WBC
help blood clot platelets
water portion of blood (50%) plasma
muscle that pumps blood heart
carry oxygenated blood to the body arteries
carry deoxygenated blood to the heart and lungs veins
What is the flow of blood? low oxygen blood from body(veins)-vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle- to lungs through pulmonary artery(pick up oxygen)-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta-body
small blood vessels that connect arteries and veins capillaries
What are the disorders of the circulatory system? sickle cell anemia and heart attack
respiratory system-warms and moistens air nasal cavity and mouth
respiratory system-connection between the nasal cavity and the mouth pharynx
respiratory system-voice box-vocal cords larynx
respiratory system-flap of tissue that covers the trachea epiglottis
respiratory system-tube for air(supported by cartilage) trachea
respiratory system-tubes that split off from trachea bronchi
respiratory system-smaller tubes branching from bronchi bronchiole
respiratory system-tiny air sacks in the lungs-gas exchange happens alveoli
large muscle that separates lungs from abdomen diaphragm
What are the problems of the respiratory system? allergies, pneumonia, lung cancer
What is included in the 1st defense? skin, mucus, saliva(sweep mucus to throat-cough; contains chemicals that break down bacteria), stomach acid(breaks down food and kills some bacteria)
What is included in the 2nd defense? WBC's(engulf particles), interferon(chemical that interferes with a virus's ability to attack), T cells(killer cells, recognize invaders), inflammatory response
What is included in the 3rd defense? antibodies proteins that bind to antigen
Created by: colorguard101