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Band Final Review

Vocabulary and Concepts

Adagio performed in a slow tempo, usually slow and stately, 66-76 bpm
Allegro performed in a brisk tempo, fast, quickly, and bright, 120-168 bpm
Presto performed in a quick tempo, very fast, 168-200 bpm
Andante performed in a medium tempo, walking tempo, 76-108 bpm
Grave performed in a very slow tempo, slow and solemn, 20-40 bpm
Lento performed in a slow tempo, slowly, 40-60 bpm
Allegretto performed in a medium fast tempo, moderately fast, 100-120 bpm
Largo performed in a slow tempo, broadly, 40-60 bpm
Moderato performed in a medium tempo, moderately, 108-120 bpm
Vivace performed in a very fast tempo, lively and fast, around 140 bpm
Accelarando to speed up gradually
A tempo in time, the performer should return to the main tempo of the piece
Allargando broadening, the notes are becoming longer as the tempo slows down simultaneously
Ritardando slowing down gradually, decelerating
Da capo al coda go to the beginning then take the coda
Da capo al fine go to the beginning then play to the end
Dal segno al coda go to the sign then take the coda
Dal segno al fine go to the sign then play to the end
Forte strong, to be played loudly
Forte Piano strong gentle, to be played loud then immediately soft
Piano gently, to be played softly
Rubato "stolen time", to be played freely, to create expressive shaping of the music
Tacet "silent", do not play when you see this word
Accent to emphasize the front of the note, slight decay
Cantabile in a singing style, imitating the human voice
Dolce to play sweetly, smoothly
Espressivo to play expressively, exaggerated
Legato "joined" to articulate smoothly, in a connected manner
Marcato "marked", to play with accentuation, execute every note as if it were a heavy accent
Staccato playing each note brief and detached; the opposite of legato, represented by a small dot over/under the note
Maestoso majestically, to be played in a stately fashion
Tenuto "held" to play smoothly and full value, holding a note slightly longer than usual but without generally altering the note's value
Arpeggio the notes of the chord played one after another instead of simultaneously, a broken chord
Beat the pronounced rhythm of music, the main rhythmic unit
Cadence a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution
Chord any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes sounding simultaneously
Coda "tail" a closing section appended to a movement
Common Time the time signature 4/4, four beats per measure often written in the musical staff as "C"
Simple Meter the beats are able to be broken down into 2 notes
Compound Meter the beats are able to be broken down into 3 notes
Cut Time the time signature 2/2, two half note beats per measure, often written in the musical staff as a C with a vertical line through it
Chamber Music instrumental music played by a small ensemble, with one player to a part
Dissonance simultaneous or successive sounds associated with harshness, unpleasantness, or unacceptability
Consonance simultaneous or successive sounds associated with sweetness, pleasantness, and acceptability
Dynamics the relative volumes in the execution of a piece of music
Scale any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch
Fermata "finished, closed" a rest or note is to be held for a duration that is at the discretion of the performer or conductor (typically twice its printed length or more for dramatic effect
Grace Note an extra note added as an embellishment and not essential to the harmony or melody
Melody a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as the single entity
Harmony the sound of two or more notes heard simultaneously, a separate line from the melody that is complimentary
Interval the space between two notes
Key Signature the arrangement of sharps or flat signs on particular lines and spaces of a musical staff to indicate that the corresponding notes, in every octave, are to be consistently raised by sharps or lowered by flats from their natural pitches
Major Scale a diatonic scale having half steps between the third and fourth and the seventh and eighth degrees and whole steps between the other adjacent degrees
Minor Scale can refer to three different scales, natural, harmonic, and melodic. The natural variation has half steps between the second and third and the fifth and sixth and whole steps between the other adjacent degrees
Meter the pattern of a music piece's rhythm of strong and weak beats
Tempo "time" the overall speed of a piece of music
Time Signature a notational convention used in Western music notation to specify how many beats are contained in each measure and which note value is equivalent to a beat
Duet musical composition for two performers in which the performers have equal importance to the piece
Trio a method of instrumentation by three different instruments to make a melodious music or song
Quartet an ensemble of four instrumental performers or a musical composition for four instruments
Solo "alone" executed by a single instrument
Soli refers to an entire section playing in either unison or harmony
Flat a symbol that lowers the pitch of a note by a semitone
Sharp a symbol that raises the pitch of a note by a semitone
Natural a symbol that cancels the effect of a sharp or a flat
Slur a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played without articulation/seperation
Timbre the quality of a musical tone that distinguishes instruments
Partial any of the sine waves of which a complex tone is composed, part of the harmonic series of a brass instrument
Phrase a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of it own
Staff a set of five horizontal lines and four spaces that each represent a different musical pitch or in the case of percussion, different instruments
Vibrato more or less rapidly repeated slight variation in the pitch of a note, used as a means of expression
Trill a rapid usually unmeasured alternation between two harmonically adjacent notes (semitone or whole tone)
Tutti "all" used in a score when all of the voices come in at the same time or play the same part or after a divisi they both play together again at the point marked _____
Root the main note (usually bottom) of a chord
Pitch how high or low the note is, defined in physics by the unit Hertz
Soprano Instruments Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Trumpet
Alto Instruments Alto Saxophone, Horn
Tenor Instruments Bassoon, Tenor Saxophone, Trombone, Euphonium
Bass Instruments Bass Clarinet, Baritone Saxophone, Contrabassoon, Tuba
Tone Beauty, blend, control, characteristic sound, resonant, open, how you sound
Intonation pitch control on chords, melodic lines, and tutti sections
Technique Articulation, facility, precision, rhythm, lining things up vertically
Balance Ensemble and sectional, can you hear melody, harmony, the other layers, clarity of the ensemble
Musicality Expression, phrasing, style, tempo, artistry, fluency, dynamics, without these things it's just notes and rhythms
Bass Clef is also known as what clef? F Clef, the F goes between the two dots on the 4th line up from the bottom (2nd line down from the top)
Treble Clef is also known as what clef? G Clef, the G is located in the loop on the 2nd line up from the bottom
Created by: grygrvin



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