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Chpt 8 Terminology

System Software for Computer operations and Management

A link to any item accessible on the microcomputer or the organization’s network; displayed on the desktop as an icon, added to the operating system start button menu, or placed in specific folders. shortcut
A system and an application software program that control the development, use, and maintenance of data stored in databases. Database management systems (DBMS)
Software that provides the instructions for processing general purpose applications for end users as well as applications specific to the organization’s functional areas. Application software
Area where the end user and the computer system communicate; displays whenever the application or operating system software provides information to the end user or the software needs the end user to enter information or make a selection. Dialog box
Bar that contains a start button and icons for all application or operating system software that are running; the default location can be moved to the sides or top of the desktop, hidden, or customized. Taskbar
An interface that translates different operating system (computing platform) protocols and manages the exchange of information among different computing platforms and hardware devices. Middleware
Software that provides instructions to control computer operations, network management, database management, and system security for the organization’s information system. System software
Method of turning the computer-based information system on. Boot
The analysis of data stored in a data warehouse to identify patterns and relationships for predicting future trends and consumer behaviors as well as making better decisions. Datamining
A combination of hardware and software that makes it easy for the end user to respond to computer messages, control the computer, and request information from the computer through the use of icons, bars, buttons, boxes, images, and pull-down menus. Graphical User Interface
Bar that displays horizontally across top of application or operating system software open window and includes name of software on left side of the bar with minimize, maximize/restore down, and close buttons on the right side. Title Bar
Interface that requires the user to enter brief user commands to the operating system for decoding and execution (i.e., MS-DOS). Command driven interface
A form of multitasking that concurrently executes more than one task of a single application. Multithreading
An on-screen menu that provides a shortcut to functions related to the window or object the pointer is on at the time of a right click with an input device. Context-sensitive menu
Module that allows microcomputer user to change appearance & functionality of the operating system Control panel
An overlay on the desktop for the specific operating system or application software in use; includes a title bar, menu bar, and toolbar. Window
Software that manages the operations of the central processing unit (CPU); controls the input, output, and storage resources and computer system tasks. Operating System
Documentation for each application (word processing, spreadsheet, etc.) from the vendor to support end users with software and troubleshoot issues; provides system and application assistance online and is typically accessed from the menu bar. Help Manual
Bar located just below menu bar that displays application or operating system software icons (tools) for frequently used menu options or commands that can be executed by simply pointing and clicking on appropriate icon Toolbar
The process of rewriting parts of a file to contiguous sectors on a disk to increase the speed of access and retrieval. Defragmentation
A tool that watches and adjusts the usage and performance of the computer-based information system Performance monitor
A small data warehouse containing only a portion of the organization’s data for a specialized function or work group. Data mart
System program that changes sys & application software instructions, written in a programming language, into machine language understood computer; two ways to translate the system & application software instructions are with a compiler or interpreter. Language translations
System that integrates current and historical transaction data from the organization’s multiple databases and/or storage area networks (SAN) so end users can use report and query tools to extract data for analysis and better decision making (datamining) Data warehouse
Stimulates more primary memory (RAM) space by dividing a software program into fixed pages whereby system places into RAM only those modules (pages) currently in use & brings other “pages” from secondary storage when needed. Virtual memory
Area that stores deleted items until emptied; if not emptied, any deleted item can be retrieved/restored. Recycle bin
Language that contains commands that permit end users to interactively extract data from a database management system (DBMS) for specific information needs (also called query). Manipulation language
Place where the operating system displays a taskbar and program or file icons once the computer system has completely booted; default icons include computer directory, documents, network places, recycle bin, and network browser. Desktop
Technology that controls the use of hardware, software, and data resources by maintaining statistics on system use and unauthorized access; the statistics provide IT technicians/managers with important security information. Security Monitors
Bar located just below the title bar that typically includes file, edit, view, insert, format, tools, and help functions; clicking or pointing results in a pull-down menu for various functions specific to the application or operating system software. Menu bar
Operating system software programs for routine, repetitive tasks including creating directories, creating new folders, restoring deleted files, editing, security, disk defragmentation, and formatting disks. Utility programs
System that presents a menu of options on the monitor where the user selects the correct option by pointing and clicking with an input device; many ATM and information kiosks have these. Menu-driven interface
Created by: imaitrt