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EOC review cat. 4

Regulation The endocrine system makes certain hormones. Blood in the circulatory system carries them to the skeletal system to control the amount of calcium released from bones.
Nutrient Absorption Food is broken down in the stomach mechanically by the muscular system (churns food) and chemically by water, acid, and enzymes in the digestive system; nutrients are then absorbed by blood in the circulatory system.
Reproduction Certain hormones produced in the endocrine system control ovulation in a female's reproductive system
Defense Mucus in the lungs traps a virus in the respiratory system. T-cells in the immune system destroy virus- infected cells. Nerves in the nervous system sense pain from a fire on the skin
Transport ~The root system uptakes water. ~Xylem vessels transport water to the leaves in the shoot system. ~Phloem vessels transport sugars and nutrients throughout the plant
Reproduction ~The reproductive organs in a flower are the pistil (female) and the stamen (male). ~A seed is a mature, pollinated ovule (fertilized egg). ~Hormones in a plant's root system help trigger the growth of a seed in the shoot system.
Response When one side of a plant does not receive enough light, a hormone that causes growth is produced in the shoot system's leaves. It is transported to the darker side. As the dark side grows, the plant bends toward the light.
photosyntheis equation 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
cellular respiration equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
photosynthesis reactants carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis products glucose and oxygen
Cellular respiration reactants glucose and oxygen
Cellular respiration products carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
Photosynthesis Process by which green plants and some other organisms make sugars (like glucose) and release oxygen using light energy, carbon dioxide and water
Enzymes control the rate of chemical reactions by weakening bonds, thus lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction
Enzymes are also known as proteins
Catalysts substances that speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes do not change during reaction
Can enzymes be used more than once? yes
The reactant an enzyme acts on is the substrate
A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate Active site
Induced fit A change in the configuration of an enzyme's active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved).
What affects enzyme activity? environmental conditions, cofactors and coenzymes, enzyme inhibitors
Environmental conditions that affect enzyme activity Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous - high temps may denature (unfold) the enzyme. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral) Ionic concentration (salt ions)
Cofactors and coenzymes Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity.
Competitive Inhibitors are chemicals that resemble an enzyme's normal substrate and compete with it for the active site.
Noncompetitive Inhibitors Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site.
Tissue similar cells working together
Organ Heart, brain, stomach...
Organ Systems respiratory, circulatory, excretory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, integumentary, etc ...
Population One species in an area
Community several populations in an area
Ecosystem A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Biome A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Biosphere all living and nonliving things on Earth
negative feedback response to stimulus Decreases effect
positive feedback response to stimulus Increases effect
A human that becomes too hot will cool himself by dilating vessels and sweating Negative Feedback
Ethylene is produced when apples ripen, which stimulates production of more ethylene, causing more apples to ripen Positive Feedback
Primary Succession the development of a community in an area where no living things previously existed.
Primary succession would most likely occur at Sides of volcanoes, Landslides, Flooding
arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive Pioneer Species
bare rock becoming a diverse ecosystem Primary Succession
secondary succession the replacement of one type of community by another in an area where an existing community was destroyed or removed
Where does secondary succession take place? a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms
Climax Community A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process
Climax Community examples Big trees, grasses in prairies, cacti in deserts
Symbiosis a relationship in which two different organisms have a close association with each other.
Mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
Commensalism a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other organism is not affected in any way
Parasitism symbolic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed
Predation an organism known as a predator that eats part or all of another organism known as its prey.
Competition when two or more individuals or populations compete for the same resource, such as shelter or food
Pathogen a virus, bacterium, or any organism that causes a disease.
Trophic level level at which energy is flowing through an ecosystem
Decompose organic material Change nitrogen from one form to another in the nitrogen cycle Have role in making drugs(like penicillin), foods(like yogurt and cheese), and vitamins Help absorb nutrients in the human digestive system Beneficial roles of bacteria
Spoil food Produce harmful or damaging toxins Cause of shortage of oxygen in lakes where blooms occur Cause diseases Harmful roles of bacteria
Genetic variation difference in the genotypes within a population. Ex: Humans have different eye and hair color, skin color, shape of faces, certain health disorders, etc.
Adaptation a heritable trait that helps an organism survive in its environment. It may be a physical trait such as a beak size or shape or a behavioral trait such as how to protect itself or find food.
How do variations and adaptations of organisms compare in different ecosystems? Genetic variations tend to increase with the size of a population and the rate at which the species reproduces.
This biome has a wide range of temperatures and precipitation. The organisms that adapted to survive the seasonal weather changes. Deciduous Forest
- In this biome, plants and animals have adaptations that help them conserve water. Ex: Leaves of a cacti Desert
the reef is formed from the skeletons of coral animals. These are found in shallow, tropical waters. A healthy coral reef is home to a large variety of animals. adapted to warm, relatively shallow salt water. Coral reef
How is the long term survival of species affected by their resource base? depends on the resources supplied by their environment.
Resources necessities for sustaining life- food, water, air, space. These help organisms survive and reproduce.
Factors that influence population size • Competition • Predation • Parasitism and disease • Drought and other climate extremes • Human disturbances
What can change the resource bases of an environment? A sudden change to the environment can cause a rapid extinction of many species.
Mass Extincition large number of species become extinct and whole ecosystems collapse.
How does matter flow through the carbon cycle? Carbon makes up less than 1% of the Earth's crust and atmosphere,but all living things depend on carbon compounds
Carbon Cycle a process that moves carbon between the atmosphere, the Earth's surface, and living things.
How does the flow of matter flow through the nitrogen cycle? Nitrogen gas make up 78% of Earth's atmosphere. In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen moves between the atmosphere, Earth's surface, and living things.
Nitrogen Fixation the process by which bacteria change nitrogen gas into a form that plants can use.
eutrophication Process by which nitrogen dissolves in the body of water and stimulates the growth of plants and algae.
Created by: cadenrcr



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