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Exam 3 Micro

The Innate Immune System

Second line of defense is induced by a signaling cascade pathway after what? chemical, physical and microbial barriers.​
The innate immune response is the ___ immune response and ___than the adaptive immune response. FIRST, FASTER
The innate immune response acts by___. And its purpose is to ___. Inflammation causes redness, swelling and pain. Its purpose to destroy microbes and initiate tissue repair.
Recognition occurs via what two patterns and what kind of receptors? Pathogen associate molecular patterns (PAMPs) and Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by PRRs.​
Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)​ detect what? LPS​, Peptidoglycan​, Proteins, Toxins, Nucleic acids​
PRR-PAMP engagement results in phagocytosis, activation of cells, cytokine secretion and inflammation.
Toll-like receptors are __ associated receptors MEMBRANE
Triggering of TLRs results in a ___. SIGNALING CASCADE
TLR2 recognizes___. PEPTIDOGLYCAN
TLR4 recognizes___ or ___. LPS or ENDOTOXIN
Scavenger receptors detect... modified lipoproteins, phagocytosis of bacteria, and the clearance of apoptotic cells.​
Opsonins soluble. They are any substance that enhances phagocytosis of a cell or particle.
Opsonins (enhancers of pathogen phagocytosis) Bind to surface of microbes​ via: Complement C3b​, C reactive protein​, and Antibodies
NOD-like receptors Cytosolic receptors​. Detect a variety of PAMPs​. Activates caspase-1 that activates IL-1β.
Markers of abnormal self include: Reduction of surface markers such as MHC I.​ Expression of stress markers such MICA and MICB.
How can abnormal self be detected? PRRs​ and killer activation receptors on NK cells.​
Defensins soluble. cause pores in bacteria.
Lysozyme soluble. break down peptidoglycan at β 1-4 glycosidic linkages.
DNAase breaks down DNA (soluble)
RNAase breaks down RNA (soluble)
Complement soluble. Soluble proteins and enzymes that are part of both the innate and adaptive immune response.
Complement Soluble Defense Mechanisms do these things to protect Lysis of bacteria, cells and viruses. ​Phagocytosis​. Recruitment of inflammatory cells​.
Complement soluble defenders have an innate response​ that can serve as an Alternative pathway​. And a Mannan-binding lectin (MBL pathway).
Complement soluble defenders Alternative Pathway sequential events: 1. C3b to bind microbe​ [Factor B and D continue​ while Factor H and I inhibit (regulatory)] 2. C3 convertase​ 3. C5 convertase​ 4. C5b inserts in cell membrane​ 5. Membrane attack complex (MAC)
Complement soluble defenders: Terminal or lytic pathway 1. C5b inserted into membrane​ 2. C6, C7, C8 follow​ 3. Multiple C9 insertions result in pore formation. 4. Membrane attack complex (MAC)​. 5. Pore leads to lysis of microbe.​
Complement soluble defenders: Mannan-binding lectin pathway​ 1. Activated by MBL binding to mannose on certain microbes​ (MBL is an acute phase protein​) 2. Interacts with MBL-activated serine protease (MASP)​ 3. MASP activates
Complement soluble defenders: REMEBER C3b is the major opsonin of the complement system​. C3a, C4a and C5a can act as chemoattractants to phagocytes
What is the complement protein that forms the pore resulting in the lysis of the pathogen? C9
Created by: 576937752774223