Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Exam 3 Micro

The Innate Immune System

Second line of defense is induced by a signaling cascade pathway after what? chemical, physical and microbial barriers.​
The innate immune response is the ___ immune response and ___than the adaptive immune response. FIRST, FASTER
The innate immune response acts by___. And its purpose is to ___. Inflammation causes redness, swelling and pain. Its purpose to destroy microbes and initiate tissue repair.
Recognition occurs via what two patterns and what kind of receptors? Pathogen associate molecular patterns (PAMPs) and Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by PRRs.​
Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)​ detect what? LPS​, Peptidoglycan​, Proteins, Toxins, Nucleic acids​
PRR-PAMP engagement results in phagocytosis, activation of cells, cytokine secretion and inflammation.
Toll-like receptors are __ associated receptors MEMBRANE
Triggering of TLRs results in a ___. SIGNALING CASCADE
TLR2 recognizes___. PEPTIDOGLYCAN
TLR4 recognizes___ or ___. LPS or ENDOTOXIN
Scavenger receptors detect... modified lipoproteins, phagocytosis of bacteria, and the clearance of apoptotic cells.​
Opsonins soluble. They are any substance that enhances phagocytosis of a cell or particle.
Opsonins (enhancers of pathogen phagocytosis) Bind to surface of microbes​ via: Complement C3b​, C reactive protein​, and Antibodies
NOD-like receptors Cytosolic receptors​. Detect a variety of PAMPs​. Activates caspase-1 that activates IL-1β.
Markers of abnormal self include: Reduction of surface markers such as MHC I.​ Expression of stress markers such MICA and MICB.
How can abnormal self be detected? PRRs​ and killer activation receptors on NK cells.​
Defensins soluble. cause pores in bacteria.
Lysozyme soluble. break down peptidoglycan at β 1-4 glycosidic linkages.
DNAase breaks down DNA (soluble)
RNAase breaks down RNA (soluble)
Complement soluble. Soluble proteins and enzymes that are part of both the innate and adaptive immune response.
Complement Soluble Defense Mechanisms do these things to protect Lysis of bacteria, cells and viruses. ​Phagocytosis​. Recruitment of inflammatory cells​.
Complement soluble defenders have an innate response​ that can serve as an Alternative pathway​. And a Mannan-binding lectin (MBL pathway).
Complement soluble defenders Alternative Pathway sequential events: 1. C3b to bind microbe​ [Factor B and D continue​ while Factor H and I inhibit (regulatory)] 2. C3 convertase​ 3. C5 convertase​ 4. C5b inserts in cell membrane​ 5. Membrane attack complex (MAC)
Complement soluble defenders: Terminal or lytic pathway 1. C5b inserted into membrane​ 2. C6, C7, C8 follow​ 3. Multiple C9 insertions result in pore formation. 4. Membrane attack complex (MAC)​. 5. Pore leads to lysis of microbe.​
Complement soluble defenders: Mannan-binding lectin pathway​ 1. Activated by MBL binding to mannose on certain microbes​ (MBL is an acute phase protein​) 2. Interacts with MBL-activated serine protease (MASP)​ 3. MASP activates
Complement soluble defenders: REMEBER C3b is the major opsonin of the complement system​. C3a, C4a and C5a can act as chemoattractants to phagocytes
What is the complement protein that forms the pore resulting in the lysis of the pathogen? C9
Created by: 576937752774223



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards