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Histamine Anti Hist

Pharm 3 Test

QuestionAnswer
Where does histamine come from? Mast cells and basophils
Where are mast cells located? Skin, lungs, gastric, mucosa, brain and other tissues
What are the two main types of Histamine receptors? H1 and H2
Where are H1 receptors found? Respiratory tract and in blood vessels
Where are H2 receptors found? Heart,GI tract, and some blood vessels.
What type of Histamine receptors affect Peripheral nerves? It is unclear.
What are the effects of Histamine on the respiratory tract? nasal congestion, increased secretions, bronchoconstriction
What are the effects of Histamine on the Blood vessels? Arteriolar dilation, decreased blood pressure, causes heat and redness, local edema, swelling
What are the effects of Histamine on the GI tract? Increased gastric acid secretion
What are the effects of Histamine on the Peripheral nerves? Stimulate sensation of nerves, cause itching and pain
What type of drugs are H1 receptor blocking drugs, agonists or antagonists? H1 receptor antagonists
What is the MOA of H1 receptor blocking drugs? They bind to the H1 receptor and occupy the receptor preventing the build up of histamine.
Do H1 receptors bind to H2 receptors? Nope
What else do H1 receptor blockers block? Some block MUSCARINIC cholinergic recptors blocking responses caused by Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves?
What is a cholinergic nerve? Any nerve, such as autonomic preganglionic nerves and somatic motor nerves, that releases a cholinergic substance at its terminal points.
What does antihistamine do to the respiratory tract? Decreased but thickened secretions, relieves some nasal congestion/inflammation.
What does antihistamine do to the blood vessels? Antagonism of arteriolar dilation
What does antihistamine do to the Heart? Minor effects, heart rate may increase due to antimuscarinic action.
What does antihistamine do to the GI tract? NONE b/c only H2 receptors are involved here.
What does antihistamine do to the CNS? Drowsiness, sedation
What does antihistamine do to the Peripheral nerves? Local anesthetic affect
What are some first generation Antihistamines? Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhydramine
Out of Chlorpheniramine and Diphenhydramine, which one has more H1 blocking activity? Chlorpheniramine
Out of Chlorpheniramine and Diphenhydramine, which one has more sedative effects? Diphenhydramine
Out of Chlorpheniramine and Diphenhydramine, which one has more Anticholinergic effects? Diphenhydramine
What are some second generation Antihistamines? Cetirizine and Loratadine
Out of Cetirizine and Loratadine, which one has more H1 Blocking activity? Cetirizine
Out of Cetirizine and Loratadine, which one has more sedative effects? They both have low to none.
Out of Cetirizine and Loratadine, which one has more Anticholinergic effects? They both have low to none.
What are the clinical uses of antihistamines? Treatment of allergies, motion sickness, N,V, pruritus, rash, sedation.
Which antihistamines treats allergies? Chlorpheniramine, Loratadine, Cetirizine
What antihistamine treats motion sickness? Dimenhydrinate, Promethanzine
Which antihistamine treats nausea and vomiting? Promethazine
Which antihistamine treats pruritus and rash? Cyproheptadine, Clemastine
Which antihistamine is for sedation? Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine
What adverse effects do antihistamines produce? Sedation, dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, decreased GI motility, diarrhea, constipation.
What adverse effects do antihistamines produce in children? May cause CNS stimulation - insomnia, nervousness, tremors.
What adverse effects do antihistamines produce the elderly? Dizziness, confusion, in coordination, fatigue
Are more sedative effects seen in first or second generation antihistamines? First generation
What type of drugs are B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists? bronchodilators
How are B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists taken? They are inhaled.
Name a short and long acting B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists. Albuterol (Short acting) and Salmeterol (Long acting)
How do B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists work? They stimulate B2 adrenergic receptors causing relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle.
What is the overall effect of B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists? They dilate and increase lung airflow.
What causes mast cells to inhibit the release of histamine? Stimulation of B2 adrenergic receptors.
Which B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist relieves acute asthma attacks? Albuterol
Which B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonist prevents asthma? Salmetrol
What are some adverse effects of B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists? Few adverse effects when given by inhalation, muscle tremor, CNS stimulation, use carefully in pts w/ cardiovascular disease and the elderly.
Name all of the groups of Bronchodilator drugs? B2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists, Methylxanthines, Tiotropium, Leukotriene receptor blockers
Theophylline is a Bronchodilator that belongs to what group? Mehtylxanthines
What are Methlxanthines converted into? Theophylline
How do Methlxanthines work? They inhibit Phosphodiesterase which destroys cAMP.
What does cAMP do in the bronchial smooth muscle cells? Causes relaxation, bronchodilation, and increased pulmonary airflow.
How are Methlxanthines taken to reverse ACUTE bronchoconstriction? IV
How are Methlxanthines taken to prevent bronchoconstriction? Orally
What is a normal plasma level of theophylline? Is varies greatly.
What affects theophylline plasma levels and the their therapeutic effects? Age, drugs, food, disease
In which population is the half-life of theophylline increased? Newborns and elderly causing toxicity and drug overdose.
In what population is the half-life of theophylline decreased? Pt's who smoke.
What does a half-life decrease of theophylline do to the drug and plasma levels? Reduces plasma levels and effectiveness of drug.
What are some adverse effects of Methylaxamines? CNS effects (anxiety, insomnia), gastric upset,N,V, arrhythmia, convulsion.
Can Methylaxamines be given to children and the elderly? Yes but with caution.
Can Methylaxamines be given to pt's with ulcer or cardiovascular disease? Yes but with caution.
What is Tiotropium used for? It decreased bronchoconstriction in COPD.
How does Tiotropium work? It blocks the bronchoconstrictor action of acetylcholine causing bronchodilation.
Can Tiotropium be used outside of the lungs? Limited b/c its poorly absorbed into the circulation.
What are some adverse effects of Tiotropium? Dry mouth, irritation of upper airways, GI upset
Name a Leukotriene receptor blocker. Montelukast (Singular)
What are Leukotrienes? Mediators released from mast cells that cause bronchoconstriction by stimulation leukotriene receptors on the airway and promote airway inflammation.
How does Montelukast work? It blocks leukotriene receptors to cause BRONCHODILATION and reduce inflammatory responses of the airways.
How and for how long are Leukotriene receptor blockers given? Orally and for long term control/prevention of the symptoms of asthma.
What contributes to reduced airflow in asthma? Airway inflammation
What are adverse effects of Leukotriene receptor blockers? HA, GI upset, joint/muscle pain, muscle soreness, RARELY liver damage
Created by: jesusrvillarreal