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World Music Mid Term

Terms and Questions for mid-term

QuestionAnswer
What does the word "Syncretize" mean? To combine or unite different or opposing principles; to reconcile differing things, especially religious views.
Animism Is the religious belief that all objects, places, and creatures have a distinct spiritual essence.
Animistic retentions "Syncretizing " some of the original (usually animistic beliefs) with that of a dominant religious belief system. Example: Cuban Santeria = W. African (Nigerian) Tribal beliefs with Catholicism.
What does the term "Diaspora" mean? The DISPERSION of any people from their original homeland to some other place in the world. Example: The Chinese Diaspora
What is Ethnomusicology or an Ethnomusicologist? The study of the combined discipline of Anthropology and Musicology. A person who studies music in its cultural context.
What are the 3 " S's" ? Sound, Setting, Significance
What is Acoustic's? The study of the "Physical properties" of a particular sound; All music is made up of many different sounds.
What is a Participant -- Observer? The "Participant" is an individual doing research on a musical culture, and is participating in the daily life of that culture while also doing "Observations" of that culture.
Name the 5 categories of the Sachs-Hornbostel World Instrument Classification system and give an example of each. Ideophone - any that is struck - triangle, tambourine Chordophone - uses strings - A violin or a 1 stringed dan bau Aerophone - blown into - trumpet - conch shell Membranophone - a membrane stretched over an opening- drums Electrophone - Uses electricity to make sound - a keyboard
What is primary research? Research including direct observation, participation, and interviews from original sources; NOT taken from books and the internet, those are "secondary" sources.
What is PITCH? The "highness or lowness" of a sound. (Shelemay definition)
What is Rhythm? The temporal (time) relationship within music. Rhythm usually (but not always) circulates around a steady beat (or pulse). The rhythm can also be off of the steady pulse, or inbetween beats. Called syncopation.
What is CULTURE? The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and other products of human work and thought. Essentially - Everything in a culture.
What were the Scottish Bagpipes originally used for? Instruments of War.
What is MUZAK? Bland and soothing music meant to set the mood. Also known as Canned Elevator Music.
What is the musical term for a ballad, what does it mean and give an example Strophic form. It is verse, chorus, different verse, same chorus, verse, chorus etc. Barbara Allen. The Corrido's.
What is the National Music of Ghana? Highlife
What is Santeria and where is it practiced? Cuba. It is a syncretization of Afro-Cuban influences from Nigeria and the Catholic religion.
Another folk religion practiced on the island of Trinidad is called what? Shouter or Spiritual Baptists. It is a syncretization of African deities with the Catholic Religion.
What is a Mariachi? A Mexican instrumental ensemble. They play the Guitarro, Vihuela, Violin and Trumpets. They also sing.
What is the "Mass." The central complex of prayers and ceremonies in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Church.
What are the 4 characteristics of sound that all cultures have organized their music by? Quality, Intensity, Pitch, Duration
Define "Music." Organized sound (pitches) that is meaningful to people within a specific time and place.
What are the 2 factors that have influenced the making of instruments from the beginning of time. Available materials and the development of metallurgy.
Sounds seem loud or soft to us because of their? Intensity.
Sounds seem high or low to us because of their? Pitch
A Melody is made up of? A set of pitches (or sounds) arranged into a beginning, middle and end (or a pleasing arrangement of pitches)
What are some of the terms used to describe vocal music? head tone, vibrato, raspy, chest voice, falsetto, nasal quality, warm, bright, dark, reedy, brassy, loud, soft . . . and many more.
East Indian music is organized around a system called? Raga
Silence can be defined as: The total absence of sound.
Every city, town, and village has it's own what? Distinctive Musical profile.
The "Autumpan" is also known as what, and what was it originally used for? Talking drums. They were used in Ghana by the Akan to send messages. They produce several tones similar to the Akan language.
Music Scholars have long used what term to refer to music that is transmitted through the traditional "oral method." Folk Music
The Bhangra is what? A South-Asian dance style from the Punjab region of East India known for its repetitive movements like in the Jhummer.
What is the dhol? A large, 2 headed drum made of mango wood. It used to be the only instrument to accompany the Bhangra.
What is Bhangra known for? It's repetitive movements like in the Jhummer.
What are the 3 stages used in most life-cycle events such as wedding and funerals? Separation, transition, and incorporation.
The goal of Santeria worship is to? To establish a relationship with the Orishas (spirits) and to seek their guidance.
The Santeria chant to the God, Chango uses what musical elements between the leader, chorus and instrumentalists? Call and response; Polyrhythmic (many rhythms) texture, Pentatonic Scale (5 tones) and Interaction between the Three drums.
Music has always played its part in displays of political power. How? National identity and ideology through national anthems and the works songs of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.
There are 2 types of political messages in music. They are? Open messages and Coded messages.
The Open musical Displays of power are called what? Public Transcripts.
There are also Hidden Transcripts. What do they do? They EMBED messages through metaphors or coded terms. Both those in power, and the dis-empowered have Hidden transcripts.
Who FIRST sang the song, "We shall overcome" in the U.S. as a form of political protest. The African American workers during the 1940's.
According to our textbook, there is considerable repetition and repeated segments in South African melodies. It is called? Iterative form. Short, repetitive phrases.
The South African song, "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" officially sung after Nelson Mandela became president, is sung in what languages. English, Zulu, German, and Afrikaan. But there many other verses in many other languages not officially part of the anthem..
The reggae term "riddim" refers to what? The tempo; the emphasis on the 2nd & 4th beats, repeating patterns & the relationship between the bass and the rhythm instruments.
What were the early music genres that contributed to "Reggae" music (in Jamaica). The Afro-Jamaican Burru, the cult music of Kumina, Mento, and Ska.
What Native American tribes does Shelemay discuss as having been traumatically forced to migrate by the U.S. and Canadian governments. The Cherokee and the Shoshone.
If you go to a pow-wow, how should you behave when the eagle staff is brought in and/or during the entire pow-wow? Stand respectively taking your hat off and carefully observe how other Native American people are behaving. ALWAYS show respect.
As in many cultures, the Balinese use music for several different purposes. What are they? For both religious and secular events including musical theater with puppets.
The word ENTRAINMENT means what? It means that music has an effect on the body.
What types of music do Mariachi ensembles play? Polkas, waltzes, folk songs, adaptations of pop tunes.
What are the two types of migration. When migrants leave their homeland, what travels easily with them? Forced and voluntary. Music.
What are 3 things that can happen to the "remembered music" of migrants? It can remain unchanged, it may be transformed, or it may be discarded.
What countries did the middle eastern migrants come from in our chapter. Syria, Lebanon, Egypt.
What was the stage name of the famous Lebanese singer who gave a concert in Las Vegas and thousands of middle eastern migrants residing in the U.S. traveled to see her sing. Her stage name was Fairouz.
What were the major reasons that both waves of Chinese migrated from their homeland? Political Anarchy, Economic Crisis, Jinshan, and famine.
A song that is created by writing new lyrics to an old melody is called what? Contrafactum
The early 19th C interactive exhibitions of daily life in various cultures (World Fairs), Shelemay calls? Panoramic
Does music often have a strong association with a particular locale. Give an example. Yes. Hawaii
Can music be owned by a family, clan, community, individual, and like a commodity (a thing) and be protected by copyright. Yes
Was the ukulele invented by making a smaller, simpler version of a Spanish Lute? Yes
Who is Yo-Yo Mah and what did he do that was discussed in our textbook? He created and launched the "Silk Road Project - a Musical Caravan."
What is music's role in dance? A constant partner.
What is all dance? A universal form of a bodily expression.
What is Capoeira? Where does it happen. Why? A combination of martial arts, dance, and music. It is a centuries old practice in Brazil. Mastering its movements shows cunning and savvy.
What is a Berimbeau? The main music instrument used with Capoeira. It is like a bow with 1 string.
How can you, as a student, put to use the study of ethnomusicology in your own life. Varied answers.
Created by: WorldMuse