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Chem Exam Rev

Chem Exam Review

TermDefinition
Chemistry The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
independent variable The experimental factor that is manipulated or changed; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable The variable that is being measured during an experiment; results
Chemical property a property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions - flammable, corrosive, toxicity, reactivity
Physical property a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance- ductility, malleability, boiling point, melting point, color, shape, density
malleability easy to hammer into flat sheets
ductility able to draw into thin wires
solids particles have a strong attraction and are packed closely together; vibrate in place; definite shape and definite volume
gases Particles are far apart and have no attraction to one another; no definite shape; no definite volume; particles expand and move rapidly
atom Smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
element A pure substance made of only one kind of atom; examples are gold, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen
compound A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds; examples are water, carbon dioxide, sodium chloride (salt)
mixture A combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically combined; examples are salt water, rocks, milk, pop, bread
Signs of a chemical reaction bubbles, color change, odor change, heat/light emitted, solid precipitate forms from liquids
Combustion Burning - a reaction that requires the presence of OXYGEN to occur
reactants A starting material in a chemical reaction; usually found on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation
products The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction; usually found on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation
nucleus center of the atom; made of the protons and the neutrons
mass number value obtained from adding the mass of the protons + the neutrons in an atom
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
ions positively and negatively charged atoms formed from the gain or loss of ELECTRONS
isotopes Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of NEUTRONS
ionic bonds Formed when one or more electrons are given/transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
proton positively charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom
electron negatively charged particle; found in orbitals around the nucleus, not found inside the nucleus
Created by: MrsTwining