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Plant Interactions

Doerre Biology 2018-2019 Interactions of Plants.

Xylem Specialized transport tissue. Made up of elongated cells that are connected end-to-end. Moves water upward from the roots to the leaves.
Tension/Negative Pressure Driving force that pulls the water dissolved materials upward in a plant. Created during the process of transpiration.
Transpiration The evaporation of water from plant leaves.
Stomata Tiny openings in leaves that allow water to escape the plant. Open or close as guard cells change shape. Water escapes when stomata are open. Site of gas exchange.
Guard Cells Gatekeepers for the stomata. When they change shape, the stomata either opens or closes.
Phloem Specialized transport tissue. Made of elongated cells. Moves glucose and other nutrients produced during photosynthesis and moves them downward throughout the plant.
Alternation of Generations Moving between the haploid and diploid generations of plants.
Haploid Generation Gametophyte produces male and female gametes by mitosis. The sperm and egg join to create a zygote, ending the generation.
Diploid/Sporophyte Generation Diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis. The spores undergo mitosis and grow into new gametophytes, ending the generation.
Gymnosperms Have gametophytes inside cones.
Angiosperms Have gametophytes inside flowers. Reproduce through pollination.
Pollination The transfer of pollen from one angiosperm to another. Specialized pollen cells produce sperm cells contained within pollen. When pollen is transferred to another angiosperm, it must land on the stigma in order for fertilization to take place.
Angiosperm Reproduction Fertilization occurs when sperm from the pollen travels from the stigma, down the style, then combines with ova in the ovaries of the plant.
Stimuli Anything that initiates a response or action in an organism. External stimuli: Light, heat, and moisture. Internal stimuli: Water and nutrient levels.
Homeostasis Process of maintaining a stable internal environment. Is maintained by responses to internal and external stimuli.
Sessile Cannot move from place to place.
Tropism Movement in response to a stimulus.
Phototropism Plants move and grow toward the sun in order to maximize the amount of sunlight they receive.
Thigmotropism When plants respond to touch from another object. When a vine comes in contact with a wall or tree, it may change its direction of growth to wrap itself around the object as it grows.
Gravitropism Plants respond to the force of gravity by growing roots downward in the soil and by growing stems away from soil.
Auxins Plant hormones that control plant growth and development. Produced in shoot tips and travel downwards inside the plant. Cause root formation and make new buds grow. Makes plants grow upwards by inhibiting growth of lateral buds.
Cytokins Hormones produced in growing roots and in developing fruits and seeds. Stimulate cell division to promote growth. Cause plants to grow outward. Makes plants grow outwards by promoting growth of lateral buds.
Created by: D4C121