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EMTC Chapter 10

EMT Complete Basic Worktext - Chapert 10 Vital Signs and Medical History

QuestionAnswer
What is a Symptom Something that is experienced and described by the patient as it pertains to his cheif complaint
What is a Sign Something that the EMT can see or observe or has a value that can be recorded
Examples of Symptoms include... Fatigue, Nausea, Pain, Headache, Double Vision, Lightheadedness, and Thirst
Examples of Signs include... Skin Color, temperature and moisture. Pulse Rate, strength, and regularity. Vomiting. Blood Pressure. Bruise. Deformity. Swelling
Baseline vital Signs The very first set of vital signs obtained on the patient during a call
Trending The comparing of multiple sets of vital signs over a period of time in order to reveal a trend in the patients condition.
Normal respirator rates (breaths per minute at rest) Adult 12 to 20; above 24 serious; Below 10 Serious
Normal respirator rates (breaths per minute at rest) Adolescent 11-14 years 12 to 20
Normal respirator rates (breaths per minute at rest) School Age 6 to 10 15 to 30
Normal respirator rates (breaths per minute at rest) Preschool 3 to 5 years 20 to 30
Normal respirator rates (breaths per minute at rest) Newborn 30 to 50
Snoring Sounds Airway blocked / Open patients airway prompt transport
Wheezing Medical problem such as asthma assist patient in taking perscribed medications; prompt transport
Gurgling Fluids in airway/ suction airway prompt transport
Crowing (harsh sound when inhaling) medical problem that cannot be treated on the scene ; prompt transport
What are the charachteristics of respirations Rate, Depth, Ease, Sound
Tidal Volume the amount of air moved in and out with each breath.
Ease of resperation is described in one of the following ways Unlabored; Labored (mild, moderate, severe)
wheezing this is a high pitched sound that is indicative of lower airway constriction. this can be heard during both inhalation and exhalaton.
Stridor This harshe high pitched sound can occur dring inhilation or exhalation and is indicative of partial upper airway obstruction
Crackles Thes are find cracling sounds that can be heard with a stethoscope during inhalation as aire is forced through fluid or mucus i the lower airways
Cartoid Pulse The pulse point located on either side of the anterior neck lateral to the trachea
Brachael Pulse Pulse point felt in two locations on the inside of the upper arm and over the medial aspect of the anterior elbow
Radial Pulse pulse point located over the lateral aspect of the anterior wrist
Femoral pulse pulse point located deep in the groin between the hip and the inside of the upper thight
popliteal pulse pulse point located over the posterior aspect of the knee
dorsal pedis (pedal) pulse pulse point located over the anterior foot.
Posterior tibial pulse pulse point located over the medial ankle just posterior to the ankle bones
Pulse rates (Beats per minute) Aadult 60 to 100
Pulse rates (Beats per minute) Children 11 to 14 60 to 105
Pulse rates (Beats per minute) School age 6 to 10 70 to 110
Pulse rates (Beats per minute) Newborn 120 to 160
Pulse Quality rapid and regular Exertion, fright, fever, high bloodpressure, first stage of blood loss
Pulse Quality Rapid and regular Slow Shock, later stages of blood loss
Pulse Quality Slow Head Injury, drugs, some poisons, some heart problems, lack of oxygen in children
Pulse Quality irregular Possible abnormal electrical heart activity (Arrthmia)
Pulse Quality No pulse Cardiac arrest (clinical death)
Blood Pressure adult male 100 plus age in years to 40 for systolic and 60 to 90 for the diastolic
Blood Pressure adult female 90 plus age in years to age 40 for systolic and 60 to 90 for diastolic
Adolescent 90 or lower systolic and 2/3 of the systolic pressure
AUSCULTATION THE ACT OF LISTENING FOR SOUNDS MADE BY INTERNAL ORGANS SUCH AS THE LUNGS AND THE HEART. aLSO THE TECHNIQUE USED TO LISTEN FOR PULSE SOUNDS WHEN OBTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE
palpation the act of examining by feeling with the hands. Also a technique used for obtaining a blood pressure reading
Systolic the pressure created when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into the areteries
Diastolic the pressure remaining int he arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling
a patients skin should be assessed for the following conditions Color temperature and moisture
Skin color can be assesed from the following areas for evidence of good perfusion Face, Nail beds, Oral mucosa(inside the lower lip), conjunctivia (inside the lower eyelid)
Pale A whiteish skin condtion indicative of poor perfusion
Cyanotic a bluish skin color indicative of poor oxygenation
flushed a reddish skin clor commonly seen when someone is embarrassed or is suffering a heat related emergency
jaundice a yellowish color of the kin and whites of the eyes indicative of poor liver function
diaphoretic perspiring, sweaty, moist. A chartachterization of skin condition
Cool clammy skin is a sign of shock, or anxiety
cold moist skin is an indication that the body is losing heat
cold dry skin is exposure to cold
hot dry skin is high fever heat exposure
Hot moist skin is high fever, heat exposure
Goos pimples accompanied by shivering, chattering teeth, blue lips, and place skin Chills, communicable disease, exposure to cold, pain or fear.
Capalarie refill test a test used to assess perfusion status in the extemities
As you observe a patients eyes, you will be observing for the following charachteristics pupil size/shape; equality of pupil size; reactivity to light
dialated pupils pupils that are larger than normal
Constricted pupils pupils that are smaller than normal
PERRL a mneumonic used to evaluate a patients puple. the letters stand for Pupils Equal and Round Reactive to Light
orthostatic vital signs a test in which vital signs are measured before and after a patient moves from a supine to a sitting position, or a sitting position to a standing position
there are several situtations where a pulse oximiter will not work for measuring oxygen levels Patients who are in shock or hypothermic; cases of carbon monoxide poisioning; Excessive movement; nail polish beneath the probe
General Impression the element of a patient assessment that includes assessing approxamate age, gender and level of distress
Cheif complaint the patients perception of the problem in his own words. It is not what the EMT percieves is to be the problem
SAMPLE a nmeumonic used in btaining a patient history. the letters stand for signs and symptons, allergies, medications, past pertanant medical history Last oral intake, and Events leading to the injury or illness
OPQRST a mneumonic for the questions asked to get a description of the present illness. The letters stand for Onset, Provocation, Quality, Region, and Radiate, Severity and Time
Created by: superjacent