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Biology Chapter 8-9

process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors evolution
5 lines of evidence for evolution molecular similarities, developmental similarities, anatomical evidence, geological evidence, fossil evidence
DNA sequencing, more similar DNA = more closely related molecular similarities
embryos start out the same then differentiate developmental similarities
homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures anatomical evidence
upper layers contain more recent organisms geological evidence
used with geological evidence to determine age of fossils fossil evidence
preserved remains or the trace evidence of an organism's existence in the past fossils
features found in different organisms that share structural similarities but different functions homologous structures
similar function but not similar in origin analogous structures
structures that have lost their function over time vestigial structures
developed the theory that modern organisms evolved over long periods of time from a common ancestor Charles Darwin
3 patterns of biological diversity species vary globally, species vary locally, species vary overtime
what 2 organisms did Darwin study on the Galapagos finches and their different beaks and tortoises with their different shaped shells
feature that allows an organism to survive and reproduce adaptations
organisms with variations most well suited to an environment will survive natural selection
who developed the idea of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature Linnaeus
classifying organisms taxonomy
2 to 3 word name given to specific species binomial nomenclature
what are the first and second words of the binomial nomenclature first word is genus second word is species
what does species usually describe unique features or the habitat
what allows scientist to identify organisms according to traits dichotomous key
how well suited an organism is to its environment fitness
harmless creature mimics a harmful one mimicry
ability to blend into environment camoflague
when humans take advantage of random mutations that ended up being helpful artificial selection
3 places you can see natural selection today drug resistant bacteria, pesticide resistant bugs, peppered moth
diagram (tree) of how things are related cladogram
something happened or changed causing a new branch splitting event
trait that is passed to the next generation derived charcters
group of the same species population
section of DNA that has a specific pattern of nitrogen bases gene
movement of alleles into or out of a population gene flow
change in allele frequency due to change genetic drift
2 types of genetic drift bottleneck and founder effect
reduction in population due to a random event; this reduces genetic variation bottleneck
small number of individuals become isolated from original population founder effect
observable change in the allele frequency of a population microevolution
have traits that fall between 2 extreme phenotypes ex: human height normal distribution
type of natural selection in which population mean stablilizes on a non-extreme stabilizing selection
one extreme is selected ex: white moths and dark moths directional selection
extreme phenotypes are selected ex: rock pocket mice disruptive selection
specification through diversification of one ancestral species adaptive radiation
3 types of responsive behavior innate, learned, altruism
instinct passed from generation to generation without learning ex: taking hand off hot burner innate
behavior that is taught to offspring ex: hunting learned
animal sacrifices its own fitness to help other members ex: ants build bridges out of their bodies to help the swarm altruism
Created by: dancer2024