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Midterm 3

What example is a parasite? Honey Mushroom
What are the hairs called below the ground of a mushroom? mycellium
Who are the heterotrophs? Kingdom: Fungi
Kingdom: Fungi Facts 1. 100K species estimated unknown species (1.5 mill) 2. Single/multicelled 3.Diverse and Widespread
What are the diverse and widespread facts of fungi? - Decomposers - Yeast -Antibiotics -Disease -Symbionts (Parasites, mutualists)
Where can parasites be on? plants and animals
Decomposers dead, break down constituent nutrients and come right up
Saprotrophic spit out digestive chemicals and make food into kind of a slurry break it down and slip it up. Soak it up & Absorb it.
Body structure of a fungus - multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts) - some species grow as filaments or yeasts (or both) - chitin in cell walls - Hyphae -mycelium
Hyphae tiny filaments with septa or without (coenocytic hyphae)
Mycelium network of hyphae
coenocytic hypha no cell walls, free flowing, No septum
What is the first part of the Generalized Life Cycle of Fungi (Step 1) Asexual Reproduction
Generalized Life Cycle of Fungi (Step 1) 1. Spore-producing structures 2. Spores (n) 3. Mycelium
Generalized Life Cycle of Fungi (Step 2) 1. Plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) 2. Heterokaryotic Stage 3. Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) 4. Zygote (2n)
What is the second part of the Generalized Life Cycle of Fungi ( Step 2) Sexual Reproduction
Generalized Life Cycle of Fungi (Step 3) 1. Meiosis 2. Spores (n) 3. Germination
Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called ___. haustoria
haustoria allow to penetrate the tissues of their host
Mycorrhizae fungi root; mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots
Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root complex
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane
What does the Haustoria consist of? -Arbuscule -Fungal Hypha -Haustorium -Plant cell plasma membrane -Plant cell -Plant cell well
Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia
Exploring Fungal Diversity - Chytrids (1,000 species) - Zygomycetes (1,000 species) - Glomeromycetes (160 species) - Ascomycetes (65,000 species) - Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)
Primitive Fungal Diversity Chytrids
Most Advanced Fungal Diversity -Ascomycetes (65,000 species) - Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)
Chytriomycota -Terrestrial and Aquatic - Decomposers, parasites, or mutualists - evolved early - only fungi having flagellated spores (zoospores)
Zygomycota - fast growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts - hyphae are coenocytic - asexual sporangia produce haploid spores - Zygosporangia
zygosporangia - site of karyogamy and then meiosis - resistant to harsh environmental conditions
Ascomycota -Live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats - Produce sexual spores - called "cup or sac fungi" - vary in size and complexity -plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts - >25% symbiotic assoc.
symbiont: host/symbiont relationship
Mutualistic both benefit
parasitic one +, host -
commensual +, host 0
Lichen -Mutualistic symbiosis -Fungi gets photosynthate -Algae gets place to live
Ascocarp of fungus sexual reproduction
soredia asexual, pieces of lichen come off and start new
cordyceps - take residence of brain of ant - ascus come out of anthead (spores burst)
Basidiomycota - mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi - some form mycorrhizae and plant parasites - decomposers of wood - Basidiospores on basidium
basidium phylum is defined by a clublike structure - a transient diploid stage in the life cycle
What are animals? - multicellular - heterotrophs -locomotion -diploid
heterotrophic ingestion--> digest--> absorb
choanoflagellates - flagellated protozoa - very similar to choanocytes in sponges - possible animal ancestor
The common ancestor of living animals may have lived between ___ and ___ million years ago (Precambrium) 675; 875
body plan a set of morphological and developmental traits
cephalization concentration of sensory systems at one end of the body (associated with directional travel)
tissue a group of closely associated, similar cells that work together to carry out specific functions
sponges multicellular, have specialized cells.. but no true tissues.
reproduction and development 1. zygote 2. eight-cell stage 3. cross section blastula 4. gastrulation 5. gastrula
2 cavities 1. Archenteron 2. Blastocoel
Animals can be characterized by "body plans" - Hox genes that regulate the development of body form. - Hox family can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology -symmetry
Radial Symmetry Cnidaria
Bilateria bilateral symmetry
What does the Gastrula consist of? - Blastopore - Archenteron - Ectoderm - Endoderm -Blastocoel
Embryonic development 1. Diploblastic 2. Triploblastic
Diploblastic 2 germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm)
Triploblastic 3 germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm)
Ectoderm gives rise to skin and nervous system
endoderm lining of digestive tract, liver, lungs, pancreas
mesoderm connective tissue (bone), muscle, blood vessels, kidneys, reproductive system, and more...
A true body cavity is called a ___ and is derived from mesoderm coelom
Coelomates animals that possess a true coelom
coelomate structure -digestive tract (endoderm) -coelom -body covering (ectoderm) - tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (mesoderm)
Pseudocoelomate -digestive tract (endoderm) -pseudocoelom -body covering (ectoderm) -muscle layer (from mesoderm)
Acoelomate -body covering (ectoderm) -tissue filled region (mesoderm) -wall of digestive cavity (endoderm)
Protosome development 1. eight cell stage 2. spiral and determinate 3. solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom 4. mouth develops from blastopore.
Deuterostome development 1. eight cell stage 2. radial and indeterminate 3. folds of archenteron form coelom 4. anus develops from blastopore
protostomes characterized by spiral cleavage
Deuterostomes characterized by radial cleavage
Acoelomates (no coelom) - epidermis (ectoderm) - muscle layer (mesoderm) - mesenchyme (gelatin-like tissue) - epithelium (endoderm)
Pseudocoelomates - Pseudocoelom - Epidermis (ectoderm) - Muscle Layer ( Mesoderm) -Epithelium (endoderm)
Coelomates (Tube within a tube) -epidermis (ectoderm) -muscle layer (mesoderm) -peritoneum (mesoderm) -epithelium(endoderm) -mesentery (mesoderm)
Metazoa 770 mya
Eumetazoa 680 mya
Bilateria 670 mya
3 classes of tetrapods - amphibia - class reptilia - class mammalia
class amphibia Aquatic stages (eggs and juvenile), usually an adult terrestrial stage
class reptilia -Amniotic sac or egg -Scales or feathers -Waterproof skin and developed lungs
class mammalia -Amniotic sac or egg (in uterus or egg) -Fur/hair -Lactation through mammary glands
Advanced characteristics of vertebrates -Large, complex brain -Complex organ systems -Most have paired appendages
Invertebrate Chordates: Tunicates and Lancelets
Class Amphibia Salamanders, frogs and toads
Chordate diversity -Invertebrates -Vertebrates
Vertebrates - fish - tetrapods
fish -Jawless, cartilaginous skeleton -Jaws, cartilaginous skeleton -Jaws, bony skeleton
1st step Diffusion When lump of sugar is dropped into beaker of pure water, sugar molecules begin to dissolve and diffuse through water
2nd step Diffusion Sugar molecules continue to dissolve and diffuse through water.
3rd step Diffusion Sugar molecules become distributed randomly throughout water.
solute movement diffusion
osmosis solute stays, water moves
Isotonic solution no net water movement
Hypertonic solution net water movement out of the cell
Hypotonic solution net water movement into the cell
If Solute Concentration in solution A is Greater, Solute Concentration in Solution B is Less. A hypertonic to B; B hypotonic to A.
If Solute Concentration in Solution A is Less, Solute Concentration in Solution B is Greater. B hypertonic to A; A hypotonic to B.
If Solute Concentration in Solution A is Equal , Solute Concentration in Solution B is Equal. A and B are isotonic to each other.
Fluid-electrolyte homeostasis - Osmoregulation - Excretion
Osmoregulation - regulation of osmotic pressure - maintains fluids and electrolytes
Excretion - Process of ridding body of metabolic wastes - excretory systems function in both osmoregulation and disposal of wastes
Osmoregulation the process by which organisms control the concentration of water and salt in the body so that their body fluids do not become too dilute or too concentrated
Osmoconformers - concentration of body fluids varies along with changes in the sea water -many marine invertebrates found in the open ocean
osmoregulators - homeostatic mechanisms maintain optimal salt concentration in their tissues - common in estuaries
4 steps of getting rid of nitrogenous wastes 1. Filtration 2. Reabsorption 3. Secretion 4. Excretion
nephron unit of urine processing
Protonephridia filter interstitial fluid- mostly osmoregulatory
Three different types of animals -Freshwater fish - bony marine fish - terrestrial vertebrate
Inflow/Outflow of Freshwater Fish -Does not drink water - salt in -H2O in - Salt Out
Freshwater Fish Urine - Large volume of Urine - Urine is less concentrated than body fluids
Inflow/Outflow of Bony marine fish - Drinks water - salt in - H2O out - Salt out
Bony Fish Urine - small volume of urine - urine is slightly less concentrated than body fluids
Inflow/Outflow of Terrestrial vertebrate -Drinks water - Salt in - H2O and salt out
Terrestrial Vertebrate Urine -Moderate volume of urine - Urine is more concentrated than body fluids
Urine of most aquatic animals, including most bony fishes ammonia
Urine of mammals, most amphibians, sharks, and some bony fishes Urea
Urine of many reptiles, insects, and land snails uric acid
Phylum Cnidaria -radial symmetry - tissues but no organs - large stomach with tentacles around orifice - two body shapes
Every other animal Phylum we study is Triploblastic 3 germ layers (Ectoderm, endoderm, and Mesoderm)
Protostome development 1. eight-cell stage 2. spiral and determinate 3. Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom 4. Mouth develops from blastopore
Deuterostome development 1. Eight-cell stage 2. Radial and indeterminate 3. Folds of archenteron form coelom 4. Anus develops from blastopore
Bilateral Symmetry and Organ Systems - Protostomes - Deuterostomes
Protostomes - Aceolomate :Platyhelminths, Coelomates
Deuterostomes - No notochord: echinoderms - Notochord: chordates
Platyhelminthes - 20,000 species - Found in Marine, Freshwater, and terrestrial - Free-living and parasitic, first predators
Platyhelminthes Body Plan - Bilateral Symmetry - Laterally compressed (flatworms) - Acoelomate - Cephalization
Platyhelminthes Development - Triploblastic - Protostomes
Locomotion ciliated epidermis
Organ systems of free-living members - Nutrition/ Digestion - Circulation and Gas exchange - Nervous System - Hermaphroditic or asexual
Nutrition/ Digestion of Free-living members mouth, pharynx, and Gastrovascular cavity
Circulation and gas exchange of Free- living members No organ, via diffusion
Nervous System of Free-living members Simple brain and nerve cords, ocelli and auricles
Phylum Mollusca - soft-bodied - ventral foot - visceral mass - mantle - radula - complete digestive system
Why Phylum Mollusca is soft-bodied? usually CaCO3 shell
Why is there a ventral foot? for locomotion
What is the mantle thin-layer; - covers visceral mass - secretes shell
What are the molluscan classes? - bivalve - chiton - gastropod - cephalopod
Phylum Annlida - Large coelom - closed circulatory system - complete digestive system - respiratory through skin or gills -metanephridia in each segment - hydrostatic skeleton - segmented
Three classes of Phylum Annelida - Polychaeta - Oligochaeta - Hirudinea
Phylum Arthropoda- Body Plan Segmented with paired, jointed appendages
What are the segments specialized for the Arthropoda? - Perform particular functions - opportunity for specialization of body regions
Phylum Arthropoda like exoskeleton of chitin - protects against predators and helps prevent loss of moisture - supports the underlying soft tissues and provides a place for muscles to attach - Non-living, sheds - takes a lot of energy
Phylum Arthropoda open circulatory system - dorsal heart, pumps hemolymph, evolved independently
From arteries, ___ flows into hemocoel and then re-enters the heart through ___. hemolymph; ostia
Groups of Arthropods - Chelicerates (spiders) - Myriapods
Crustaceans -40,000 living - largest of 6 classes - lobsters, crabs, shrimp, stomatopods, isopods -body with cephalothorax and abdomen - most have five pairs of walking legs 20-21 segments
Some insects undergo "complete ___ " metamorphosis
Incomplete metamorphosis of Class Insecta - egg hatches into a mini-adult - disproportionately structured - series of molts-> approaches adult form
Phylum Echinodermata Body Plan - Larvae have bilateral symmetry - most adults have pentaradial symmetry - spiny "skin" - endoskeleton- CaCO3 plates - water vascular system
Phylum Echinodermata facts - complete digestive system - simple nervous system- nerve ring, no brain - usually dioecious with external fertilization
Phylum Chordata Characteristics 1. flexible, supporting notochord (cartilage) 2. dorsal, hollow nerve cord 3. Pharyngeal slits (or gill slits) 4. muscular post-anal tail
Advanced characteristics of vertebrates -pronounced cephalization -large, complex brain - closed circulatory system - complex digestive and osmoregulatory/excretory systems - most have paired appendages
Jawless fish - cartilage, not bones - no paired appendages - rudimentary vertebrae
Cartilaginous fish - no bones - jaws
Bony fish - salmon, trout, clownfish, trumpet
3 classes of Tetrapods - Amphibia - Reptilia - Mammalia
Early amphibians (Tetrapods) - mainly aquatic - moved onto land to find food, escape predators - had limbs strong enough to support body weight on land
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