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Robin Grimes part

Components for the Nuclear Fuel Assembly The fissile substance A host matrix - usually an oxide or metal metal cladding - to protect and prevent fission gases escaping. Additional fittings
fuel compositions metal/oxide/nitride/carbide/flouride
fuel forms single phase/solid solution/composite
fuel packing pellet/particle/liquid
nuclear fuel cycle mine//conversion//enrichment//fabrication//reactor//storage //repro and recyle
alterntive fuel cycles once through300000yrs modified open (actinide and fission product waste)9000yrs fully closed (burn actinides)30yrs
influence of fission products on fuel performance Chemical Volumetric Thermal
5 metal particles Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Tc
Dissolved within the uranium dioxide matrix Ba, Zr, Y and the lanthanides,
Precipitated as a separate oxide phase Ba, Sr, Sn, Zr, Mo, Cs, Rb
Volatile elements Kr, Xe, Te, I, Br, Cs
What Do We Want high burn-up structural/chemical stability at high temp and radiation Effective cladding int reprocessing proliferation resistant 50:50 Transuranic to uranium ratio Fabrication simple Optimise thermal conductivity Retain fission products
possible sites/structures that might accommodate fission products in polycrystalline UO2 Dissolved within the material, precipitated in an oxide phase, precipitated within metal particles or precipitated within microvoids Volatile elements either released from the UO2 matrix or held within small bubbles
Xe and Kr Fission Gas Release insoluble intragranular bubbles. gas moves back into the lattice, to grain boundaries by solid state and radiation enhanced diffusion intergranual bubbles at grain boundaries grow and coalese - inter-connected pathways vent to fuel – clad gap.
“apparent” diffusion coefficient iincludes thermally activated diffusion, radiation assisted diffusion
processes  that will occur during the burn‐up of fuel that will alter the conductivity  At higher temperatures Frenkel defects, increase in the thermal conductivity. stoichimetry and content of plutonium, additional scattering centres - thermal conductivity decreases porosity reduces the thermal conductivit
Universal Radiation Damage Concepts Displacive radiation damage is initiated upon formation of Frenkel pair defects in the lattice. Frenkel pair defects in irradiated material > equilibrium thermodynamic conc response is determined by the fate of these excess Frenkel pairs
Chemical Rate Theory: fate of irradiation-induced point defects production and recombination. anitsite formation. nucleation and growth rate of interstitial loops/dislocations.
Created by: emmaperry