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Expressive technique

Dynamics and Expressive techniques

TermDefinition
Expressive techniques refer to the way a performer plays a piece of music, and can include the tempo, style, articulation, ornamentation, instrumental techniques and electronic manipulation
Tempo The speed of the music
legato smoothly
rubato With freedom or in the performer’s own time with expression
accelerando Gradually getting faster
A tempo Return to the original speed
Articulation the way in which specific parts or notes in a piece of music are played
accent Notes attacked strongly with emphasis
Forte piano Attack loudly then soft
sforzando A sudden emphasis
slur A curved line over notes to indicate to play smoothly
staccato Short and detached
tenuto Hold the note for its full value
ornamentation the decoration of the notes in a melody or harmony with special features to add interest and expressive qualities.
glissando slide
trills Rapid movement between two adjacent notes
accacciatura A crushed note played at the same time as the note it is played into
appoggiatura A leaning note that leans into the next note
mordent Hear the note, the one above it, the original, the one below and then the original
turn Hear the note, the one above, the one below and the original
tremolo A rapid repetition of the same note
vibrato Vibrating or shaking of the note
Vocal Fry is the lowest vocal register and is produced through a loose glottal closure that permits air to bubble through slowly with a popping or rattling
Col legno With the wood of the bow (on orchestral strings)
Con sordino With a mute (on orchestral strings)
Double stopping Playing 2 notes at the same time (orchestral strings)
harmonics Lightly touching part way down the string produces a pitch higher than the main tone
bends Guitar - when the string is pushed vertically on the fingerboard
distortion When the signal from the guitar is changed to produce a “dirty sound”
Effects pedal Pedal to interrupt the signal from the guitar to the amplifier that can produce various effects
Double stroke Rapid succession of double strokes alternating the left and right hands involving no particular rhythm
Drum roll Rolling effect created by rapid left then right strokes on a drum - usually heard on the snare drum
Grace notes A short note that is crushed or squashed a little before the main note
Rim shot Playing the rim of the drum at the same time as the head
With brushes Sticks ending in bristles or brushes that create a softer sound - used frequently in jazz
slurred A smooth movement from one note to another
tonguing Each note is played separately as each is tongued using a t sound
Flutter tonguing A rapid movement used in a wind instrument to create an r sound
Pitch bending Making a note temporarily sharp or flat
Singing or speaking into an instrument 20th & 21st century technique of speaking into a wind instrument while playing it
Key clicking Percussively hammering the keys on a wind instrument to create a clicking sound
multiphonics Creating 2 pitches on a wind instrument at the same time by blowing very hard or singing while playing the other note
sprechstimme Speech with melodic contours
Created by: c.deAndrade