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Evolution test

QuestionAnswer
process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors (change over time/ generations) evolution
used to compare DNA b/w species DNA sequencing
features found in different organisms that share structural similarities but different functions; shows strong evidence of common descent Homologous structures
What are examples of homologous structures? human arm/ hand and bat wing
perform similar functions not similar in origin; not used for common descent; developed because of similar environments analogous structures
What are examples of analogous structures? whale fin, shark fin
remnants of one important structures that gradually have lost all or most of their function over time; happens as a whole species vestigial structures
the preserved remains or the trace evidence of an organism's existence in the past; can be compared to each other to determine common descent; can determine age fossil
developed the theory that modern organisms evolved over long periods of time from common ancestors "Natural Selection" Charles Darwin
a feature that allows an organism to survive and reproduce in their environment therefore allowing the feature to be passed to the next generation adaptation
organisms with variations most well suited to an environment will survive; nature selects who lives and dies natural selection
how well an organism is suited to its environment; not necessarily strongest/ fastest, could be smallest, or colors fitness
can blend in with environment camouflage
organisms will copy each other to confuse predators mimicry
developed binomial nomenclature Linnaeus
2-3 word name given to specific species; 1st word is genus, 2nd word is species(usually describes a unique feature or the habitat binomial nomenclature
Why do we have binomial nomenclature? different languages
since adaptations are random mutations that ended up being useful, humans take advantage of those mutations artificial selection
Where can we see natural selection today? tortoises, finshes; peppered moths; pesticide resistant bugs; drug resistant bacteria
diagram(tree) of how things are related cladogram
trait that is passed to the next generation derived characters
something happened or changed causing a new branch splitting event
allow scientists to identify organisms according to traits dichotomous key
combination of alleles genotype
form of a gene allele
physical appearance phenotype
group of the same species population
all of the traits (alleles) within a population gene pool
movement of alleles into or out of a population gene flow
a change in allele frequency due to chance alone genetic drift
reduction in a population due to a random event; reduces genetic variation bottleneck effect
a small number of individuals become isolated from the original population(variation reduced) founder effect
most individuals in this population have traits that fall b/w 2 extremes normal distribution
observable change in the allele frequency over time microevolution
one extreme is selected for directional selection
both extremes are selected for disruptive selection
speciation through the diversification of one ancestral species into many descendant species adaptive radiation
passes from generation to generation without having to be learned innate behavior(instinctive behavior)
an animal reduces its fitness to help other members of its social group "good of the group is more important that oneself" altruism
anything that triggers a response stimulus
Created by: colorguard101