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Lymph & Imm Pt 3

Lymphatic & Immune System Pt 3

Adaptive (Specific) Immunity Responds to specific antigens with coordinated action of T cells & B cells
2 types of adaptive defenses 1. Cell-mediated Immunity 2. Antibody-mediated Immunity
Cell-Mediated Immunity T cells defends against pathogens inside cell uses perforin & granzymes
Antibody-Mediated Immunity B cells defends against pathogens in fluid. uses antibodies
innate imunity present at birth no previous exposure to antigen
adaptive immunity present after birth develops exposure to antigen
Active adaptive immunity develops after exposure a. naturally acquired active ie: environmental exposure b. artificially induced active ie: vaccines containing pathogen
passive adaptive immunity transferred from another source a. naturally passive ie: from the mother ; placenta b. artificially passive ie: by injection ; against rabies
4 properties of adaptive (acquired) immunity 1. Specificity 2. Versatility 3. Memory 4. Tolerance
Specificity T & B cells responds to specific antigen and ignores all others
Versatility Any antigen, any time active lymphocyte clones itself
Memory Active - attacks invaders immediately Inactive - doesn't wake up until 2nd time exposed (faster & longer)
Tolerance immune system ignores normal "self antigens" Developing T&B cells attack the self are destroyed when made
Lymphocytes for Specific Defense T cells - cell mediated B cells(plasma) - antiBody-mediated
4 Major types of T cells Cytotoxic (killer) T cells (Tc) Memory T cells (Tm) Helper T cells (Th) Suppressor T cells (Ts)
Cytotoxic T cells (CD8) destroy pathogens and release chemicals called cytokines
Memory T cells Produced & activated if pathogen occurs again later
Helper T cells Stimulates response of T cells and (especially) B cells
Suppressor T cells Inhibits function of T & B cells and says when attack should end
antigen recognition CD Markers-cluster of differentiation more than 70 types CD3 Receptor complex - found in "ALL" T cells
CD Markers CD8 - Cytotoxic (killer) T cells Suppressor T cells responds to Class I MHC CD4 - Helper T cells responds to Class II MHC Both bind to CD3 receptor complex!
Antigen Presentation bound to a glycoprotein in the plasma membrane of another cell and is 'presented'
MHC Complex Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) has narrow groove and binds an antigen for presentation to a T cell Ex: Class I - Cytotoxic T's Class II - Helper T's
Class I MHC proteins found on virtually all nucleated body cells Can be destroyed by T cells
Class II MHC proteins Found in membranes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) Found in lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T cells - CD8 >infected body cell displays antigen in Class I MHC so T cell will destroy it >when T cell responds, it is activated >Main reason for organ donation to be rejected by recipient
What does MHC stand for? Major Histocompatibility Complex
What is APC? antigen presenting cell
What phagocyte is an APC? Macrophages (fixed & free) Kupffer cells (macs of liver) Microglia (macs of CNS) Dendritic cell (skin, nodes, & spleen)
What does Helper T cells do? release cytokines to stimulate immune response
What happens when a Cytotoxic cell is activated? 1. releases perforin 2. secretes poisonous lymphotoxin 3. causes cell to die from apoptosis
Perforin destroys targeted cells by creating lesions like pores in their membranes.
lymphotoxin A secretion of lymphocytes that kills the target cells.
Apoptosis programmed cell death
What happens when Helper T cells are activated? 1. produce cytokines 2. calls cytotoxic Ts & Macs 3. Activates B cells
What are cytokines? Inflammatory response proteins that are secreted by active Helper T cells to call Macs and Cytotoxic T cells
What is a cytokine storm? An over secretion of cytokines that triggers a dangerous syndrome
What are B cells? antibody-mediated immunity cells that attack antigens by producing specific antiBodies
What do B cells do? 1. Sensitization - antigen presenting 2.Activation-Needs Helper Ts for OK 3. Division - Plasma B & Memory B cells. Makes antibodies & memories
Sensitization matches antigen to a B cell antibody
Activation gets the OK from Helper Ts cytokines Safety mechanism - so B's don't accidentally get activated
Division Plasma B cells - antibodies that match the same target Memory B cells - waits until 2nd exposure, then divides into plasma cells
What does Memory B cells do? helps immune system to activate much faster if intruder invades again
What are the 5 classes of antibodies? IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD (MADGE or GAMED)
What's another name for Antibodies? Immunoglobulins
Antigen Binding Site has 2 identical sites called variable region but has constant segments
What is an Antigen-Antibody complex? an antibody bound to a specific antigen
What are epitopes? antibody binding sites 2 or more are complete antigens
What is the first class of antibody secreted after an antigen encounter? IgM
Most common class of antibodies? IgG
Which antibody is responsible for agglutination reaction? IgM
T/F - Are Blood Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies IgM antibodies? True
Which antibody class makes up 80% of all antibodies? IgG
Which antibody class makes up the Rh antibody? IgG
T/F - Does IgG produce hemolytic disease of the newborn (fetalis erthroblastosis)? True
Which antibody is responsible for the allergic response? IgE - Histamine
Basophils & Mast Cells attaches to the surface of IgE when antigen is bound
4 ways antibodies work 1. Formation of immune complex - agglutination 2. Labels - identifies antigens 3. Antitoxins - blocks toxins 4. Opsonization - enhances phagocytosis
Responses to antigen exposure 1st exposure - produces primary response 2nd exposure - triggers secondary response Memory cells are already primed
Created by: hrmcgee
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