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Env Toxicology 3

Entry and Distribution

Where did the fluid mosaic model get its name? The phosphlipids gave fluidity and the membrane proteins gave the mosaic
Define amphipathic. Forms a bilayer in water due to the hydrophilicity of phosphates and the hydrophobicity of lipids
How are phospholipids arranged in the cellular membrane? Grouped together with the lipids on the interior
Types of membrane transport Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Active transport Cotransport Bulk transport
What type of molecule is likely to enter a cell through simple diffusion? Small non polar gases
What is facilitated diffusion? Proteins allow the diffusion of molecules that could not otherwise cross the membrane.
Types of proteins Channel (has a lid) Carrier(like a clam but opens both ways)
Example of active transport Sodium potassium pump 3 sodiums in, 2 potassiums out.
Types of cotransport symport- two molecules, one direction antiport- two molecules two directions
Types of bulk transport Pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor mediated
Summarize Ernest Overton's findings Smaller molecules get in easier, and nonpolar molecules get in easier
octanol water coefficient calculation concentration in the octanol divided by concentration in the water
Ways of entry into an animal Inhalation, ingestion, direct contact and punctures
Why are epithelial cells almost always affected? Contaminants go through cells, not around
Tissue types Nervous, muscle, epithelial, connective
What makes epithelial tissue a good barrier? Tight junctions and little intracellular matrix
Skin structure: three main layers epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
Two layers o the epidermis Dead stratum corneum and the live stratum germantivum
Three functions of skin barrier, temperature regulation, sensory
Xenobiotic acids will absorb where, and why? They will absorb in the stomach because acids have a higher Kow in acidic environments
Xenobiotic bases will absorb where, and why? They will absorb in the small intestine because bases have a higher Kow in neutral/basic environments
If a contaminant gets into your bloodstream, where will it go next? Liver
If a contaminant gets into the central lacteal, where will it go? Into the lymph, then to subclavian artery where it will spread throughout your body.
Major regions of the pulmonary system Nasopharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar
What are turbinates and how do they help protect against chemicals? Turbinates are spongy shelves that direct air across mucus and hairs
What does the MCE do? Things absorbed or caught in mucus are pushed upwards by ciliary action and into the stomach
What is the one defense alveoli have against foreign objects macrophages
Types of toxic effects local or systemic
Tubes of the circulatory system arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
Functions of the circulatory system Distribution of things, temperature, and immunity
Where does most distribution take place and why? Takes place in capillaries because surface area, more blood, and thin walls
types of capillaries Continuous(basically everywhere, least permeable) Fenestrated(somewhat permeable in kidneys) Sinusoidal(highly permeable in liver)
Functions of the lymphatic system Blood exchange, fat absorption, immunity
Layers in a leaf, top to bottom cuticle epidermis pallisade vascular bundles Spongy mesophyll Epidermis with stomata
Sign of sulfur dioxide/sulfuric acid toxicity in plants interveinal necrosis
Why NOx is bad Will make smog, nitric acid, and ozone/PAN
Why VoC are bad Contributes to ozone
Sign of ozone toxicity in plants Flecking on the upper surface
Sign of PAN toxicity in plants Bottom glazing of leaf
Sign of halogen toxicity in plants Marginal necrosis
Sign of salt toxicity in plants Browning leaves
Created by: swilson67