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Geology Lab Test #2

TermDefinition
Conglomerate Type: Clastic Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Gravel sized rounded clasts
Breccia Type: Clastic Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Gravel sized angular clasts
Sandstone Type: Clastic Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Sand sized clasts
Mudstone Type: Clastic Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Small mud-sized silty clasts
Shale Type: Clastic Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Small mud-sized clasts, fissile (easy split), fossil
Bituminous Coal Type: Organic Texture: Bioclastic Identifying Characteristics: Compacted plant debris
Halite Type: Evaporite Texture: Crystalline Identifying Characteristics: Precipitation of ocean water, rock salt
Micrite Type: Carbonate Texture: Crystalline Identifying Characteristics: Shallow water deposition, fine-grained carbonate mud, effervescent
Oolitic Limestone Type: Carbonate Texture: Oolitic Identifying Characteristics: Shallow water deposition, small spheroidal particles, effervescent
Intraclast Limestone Type: Carbonate Texture: Clastic Identifying Characteristics: Shallow water deposition, chucks of carbonate rock, effervescent
Fossiliferous Limestone Type: Carbonate Texture: Bioclastic Identifying Characteristics: Shallow water deposition, fossil imprints, effervescent
Coquina Type: Carbonate Texture: Bioclastic Identifying Characteristics: Shallow water deposition, conglomeration of broken shells, effervescent
Chalk Type: Carbonate Texture: Bioclastic Identifying Characteristics: Deep water deposition, effervescent
Gneiss Texture: Foliated Protolith: Shale, Slate, Phyllite, Schist, Granite Characteristics: Alternating dark- and light-colored layers (gneissic banding)
Anthracite Coal Texture: Non-Foliated Protolith: Bituminous Coal Characteristics: Semi-metallic luster
Marble Texture: Non-Foliated Protolith: Limestone Characteristics: Variety of colors, effervesces
Quartzite Texture: Non-Foliated Protolith: Quartz Sandstone Characteristics: Variety of colors
Hornsfels Texture: Non-Foliated Protolith: Mudstone Characteristics: Fine-grained
Schist Texture: Foliated Protolith: Shale, Slate, Phyllite Characteristics: Medium-coarse grained, large mica flakes
Phyllite Texture: Foliated Protolith: Shale, Slate Characteristics: Fine-grained, tiny mica flakes
Slate Texture: Foliated Protolith: Shale Characteristics: Finest grained
Amphibolite Texture: Non-Foliated Protolith: Basalt, gabbro Characteristics: Coarse-grained, dark in color
Basalt Texture: Aphanitic Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: None How Did the Rock Form? Fast cooling at the surface
Andesite Texture: Aphanitic Composition: Intermediate Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Pyroxene, Hornblende How Does the Rock Form? Fast cooling at the surface
Rhyolite Texture: Aphanitic Composition: Felsic Visible: Feldspar, Quartz How Did the Rock Form? Fast cooling at the surface
Obsidian Texture: Glassy Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: None How Did the Rock Form? Very fast cooling at the surface
Pegmatite Texture: Pegmatitic Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Biotite Mica, Hornblende How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface
Granite Texture: Phaneritic Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Biotite Mica, Hornblende, Quartz How Did the Rock Form? Melting of rock, then rise of magma that cooled slowly in a magma chamber beneath the surface
Diorite Texture: Phaneritic Composition: Intermediate Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Hornblende, Quartz How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface
Gabbro Texture: Phaneritic Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Olivine, Pyroxene How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface
Porphyritic Rhyolite Texture: Porphritic Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Biotite Mica How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface, then fast cooling at the surface
Porphyritic Basalt Texture: Porphritic Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Pyroxene
Porphyritic Andesite Texture: Porphritic Composition: Intermediate Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Pyroxene, Hornblende How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface, then fast cooling at the surface
Porphyritic Gabbro Texture: Porphyritic Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: Feldspar, Olivine, Pyroxene How Did the Rock Form? Slow cooling beneath the surface, then fast cooling at the surface
Tuff Texture: Pyroclastic Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: Made of rock fragments How Did the Rock Form? Explosive volcanic eruption with fast cooling at surface
Ash Texture: Pyroclastic Composition: Intermediate Visible Minerals: None How Did the Rock Form? Explosive volcanic eruption with fast cooling at the surface
Scoria Texture: Vesicular Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: None How Did the Rock Form? Fast cooling at the surface with release of gas due to pressure drop
Pumice Texture: Vesicular Composition: Felsic Visible Minerals: Feldspar How Did the Rock Form? Very fast cooling at the surface with release of gas due to pressure drop
Vesicular Basalt Texture: Vesicular Composition: Mafic Visible Minerals: None How Did the Rock Form? Very fast cooling at the surface with release of gas due to pressure drop
Created by: BFFsrule2012