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Chapter 7

Chemistry, Pivot Point Esthetics

TermDefinition
Chemistry Scientific study of matter.
Chemists Scientists who study matter, its properties and changes.
Biochemistry Study of chemical reactions.
Organic Chemistry Study of matter containing carbon. Deals with all matter that is, or was once, living.
Inorganic Chemistry Study of matter that does not contain carbon. Deals with all matter that was never living.
Matter Anything that takes up space.
Solids Matter that has a definite weight, volume and shape.
Liquids Matter with definite weight and volume, but no shape.
Gases Matter with definite weight, but indefinite volume and shape.
Physical Change Change in the physical form of a substance without creating a new substance (water to ice).
Chemical change A change in matter that produces one or more new substances (Oxygen combines with hydrogen to make water).
Sublimation Process of a solid or gas changing states without becoming a liquid.
Energy Ability to do work and cause change.
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom, shown in the periodic table with the element.
Elements Basic units of matter that cannot be broken down into smaller units.
Periodic Law Unifying concept to organize elements and their similarities.
carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), Sulfur (S) Elements with the most interest to the Esthetician
Oxygen Most abundant element in the earth's crust and second most abundant in the atmosphere.
Atoms Smallest complete unit of an element.
3 parts of an atom proton, neutron, electron
Proton Positively charged particle.
Neutron Neither positive nor negatively charged.
Electron Negatively charged particle.
Molecular Weight Protons plus neutrons equals.
Nucleus Control center of the cell.
Electrically neutral/Stable atom Overall charge of the atom is zero (positive and negative forces are equal)
Unstable/Reactive atoms Missing electrons in outer shell.
Molecule Smallest particle of a compound that has all the chemical properties of that compound.
Compound Substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements.
Oxidation Loss of electrons.
Reduction Gain of an electron.
Ion Charged atom.
Ionic bond Attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons.
Chemical Bond Force that holds atoms together.
Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids 3 major biochemical compounds groups in the body.
Proteins Basic materials the body uses to construct and renew itself.
Enzymes Dissolve and breakdown large molecules into smaller ones.
Amino Acids Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen that join in chains to form proteins.
Peptide Bond and Polypeptide chains How amino acid compounds are joined.
Peptide bond Bond uniting 2 amino acid groups.
Polypeptide chain Chain of amino acids.
Monomers Building blocks of polymers.
Polymers Groups of monomers that bond together.
Carbohydrates Example of monomers and polymers found in the body. Used to store energy, contain a combination of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) which are arranged in a chain.
Saccharides Simple unit of a carbohydrate.
Monosaccharides Single saccharide, simple sugars such as glucose.
Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides joined together. One example is sucrose (table sugar).
Polysaccharides Many saccharides linked together, such as starch.
Lipids Energy-rich organic compounds, such as triglycerides, fats, and steroids, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and fill the intercellular spaces in the skin.
Potential Hydrogen (pH) A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Acidic solution Contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions.
Alkaline solution Contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions.
Neutral solution Concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions are equal.
Acid Releases a hydrogen ion and is positively charged.
Alkaline Term used for describing a base. Releases hydroxide ions that are negatively charged.
PH Scale Measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14.
Logarithmic Each number on the pH scale increases by multiples of 10.
pH balanced Means the pH is balanced to a certain number but not necessarily 4.5-5.5.
Acid balanced Balanced within the acid range of 4.5-5.5
Acid mantle Protective barrier of lipids and secretions on the surface of the skin.
Mixture Two or more compounds blended together physically .
Solution Mixture of 2 or more chemicals in which each is evenly distributed in the mixture to form a complete blending.
Solute A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solvent A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances.
Saturation point Point at which the Solute will no longer dissolve in the solvent.
Water Has a pH of 7 and is known as the universal solvent.
Miscible Easily mix together. For example sugar and water.
Immiscible Don't mix easily. For example oil and water.
Suspension Even dispersion of a solid substance in liquid.
Gel A product that has been formulated with a thickening agent to increase its viscosity.
Viscosity A liquid's resistance to flow (thickness or density).
Powder Finely ground solid mixed evenly with additional ingredients.
Ointment Anhydrous (without water) substance based on a mixture of oils and waxes normally having the texture of a paste.
Stick A hard, low-level water or anhydrous product applied to the skin by rubbing the product directly on the desired area.
Aerosol A product packaged under pressure and blended with a propellant (gas) inside a container, which is usually a can i.e. hairspray.
Emulsion Mixture of two or more immiscible liquids in which one liquid is dispersed in the other, united by small droplets of a binder (emulsifier).
Oil in water (O/W) emulsion Oil droplets dispersed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.
Water in Oil (W/O) emulsion Droplets of water dispersed in an oil.
Emulsifier A stabilizing agent in emulsions, used to slow down the destruction of the product. Used in concentrations from less than 1%-4%.
Active ingredients The ingredients responsible for producing the desired effect.
The Cosmetics, Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Devised the current system of nomenclature for each ingredient in products.
International Nomenclature for Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) List of ingredient names based on the International Cosmetic Dictionary.
Order ingredients are listed on product. Highest weight concentration first, then next highest until reaching concentrations of 1% or less, then they are typically shown as the most desirable first down to the least desirable.
Humectants Organic ingredients that bind water and deposit it onto the skin. Typically found in products at concentrations of 1%-10%.
Emollients Oils and oil-soluble substances used to soften the skin by providing an occlusive barrier.
Occlusive Barrier Created by Emollients and seal in moisture.
Fatty acids Come from both plant and animal sources. Commonly used in cosmetics such as cremes and lotions to keep them firm, yet soft, and easy to apply to the skin.
Fatty alcohols Fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen.
Surfactants Substances that allow oil and water to mix or emulsify. In products they can be found in concentrations ranging from 2%-20%.
Thickeners/Viscosity Modifier Ingredients that increase density in emulsions and gel-type products. Typically range from 0.1%-1% of a product.
Botanicals Ingredients derived from plants. In cosmetic products the concentration used is usually less than 5%.
Preservatives Included in cosmetic products to maintain microbiological integrity or product quality during manufacturing, storage, and use by the consumer, ex. Parabens, Hydroxybenzoates
Chelating Agents Ingredients added to a product to enhance the effectiveness of the preservative.
Coloring agents Vegetable, mineral or pigment dyes that are added to products to enhance the products appearance.
Hypoallergenic Less likely to cause allergies.
Fragrance free Means that a product has less than 1% fragrance added, or no fragrance added at all.
Antibacterial Destroy bacteria that can cause problems such as acne or other infections.
pH adjusters Acids or alkalis (bases) used to adjust the pH of products. Also known as buffering.
Comedogenic Tendency for an ingredient to clog follicles and cause a buildup of dead skin cells, resulting in comedones.
Non-comedogenic Products less likely to clog pores.
Sunscreens (UV absorbers or blockers) Active ingredients used in a variety of product types to block or absorb UV emitted by the sun. Considered a drug product under FDA guidelines.
Antioxidants Ingredients used in certain types of treatment products to prevent skin inflammation and damage due to free radicals.
Free radicals Unstable molecules that cause biochemical aging, especially wrinkling and sagging of the skin.
Co-enzyme Q-10 (Ubiquinone) Is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in human cells, aid in the production of cellular energy, circulation, stimulates the immune system, increases tissue oxygenation and improves the appearance of aging skin.
Silicones Ingredients derived from a silicone base free of contaminants are environmentally friendly unlike petroleum derivatives.
Cyclomethicone Non comedogenic emollient that gives products a silky feel
Dimethicone Gives products lubricity, or "slip".
Dimethicone copolyol Silicone ingredient that makes products feel soft, especially sunscreens.
Hydroxy Acids Organic acids extracted from a variety of natural sources including fruits, sugar, and milk. May be used at concentrations 30% or less.
Kinetin Essential growth factor that prevents premature aging.
Created by: BBLaird