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Astronomy 3-5

Ch. 3-5 Astronomy Test

How long is a day on Mercury 59 Earth days
How long is a year on Mercury 88 Earth days
Which is longer on Mercury, a day or a year? A year
Does Mercury orbit in a circle or oval around the sun? Oval
What is the shape of Mercury's orbit called? Elliptical
Is it hot or cold on Mercury? Hot during the day, and cold at night
Why is it so cold at night? One side faces away from the sun and doesn't have an atmosphere to keep in the heat
What kind of planet is Mercury? Terrestrial
What does Mercury's surface look like? It has craters
Why might it look like this? By getting hit by asteroids
What would the sky look like if you were on Mercury? Dark, because it has no atmosphere
When is the best time to see Mercury? In the morning or evening, because it rises and sets with the sun
Large rocks orbiting the sun in our solar system (also called space rocks) Asteroids
Means Earth-like; a planet that has a solid surface Terrestrial
Planets that do not have a solid ground to stand on, are made of gas Gaseous
Spaceships that do not transport people, are controlled by computers Unmanned spaceships
The first spaceship to fly by Mercury in 1974 Mariner 10
When Mercury passes between the Earth and the sun and its silhouette can be seen against the sun Transiting the sun
The second spaceship to fly by Mercury in 2004 Messenger
A hole on the surface of a planet or moon caused by the impact of an asteroid Crater
Why did astronomers think Venus was a twin of Earth? It is next to the Earth, and the same size
What would it feel like on Venus? Hot!
What is the atmosphere like on Venus? Heavy with thick, poisonous clouds
What is special about the rotation of Venus? It rotates opposite of most planets, and rotates very slowly
Have very many spacecraft visited Venus? Yes, 22
Since we can't see through the thick clouds over Venus, how do we know what the planet's surface looks like? Radar
Why does Venus go through phases? Because it orbits around the sun
What are the different shapes called that Venus appears to take as it orbits the sun? Phases
Curved shape, like that of the moon when it is less than half illuminated Crescent
Molten or melted rock that flows from a volcano Lava
Name given to Venus when it is visible in the early morning just before the sun rises Morning star
The toxic chemical in the heat-trapped clouds that cover Venus Sulfuric acid
Name given to Venus when it is visible just after the sun sets in the sky Evening star
A device that sends out signals that bounce off the surface of an object and return to the device, revealing information about that object Radar
The substance that makes up everything around you, anything that occupies space Matter
The measure of how much matter is in something Mass
How long it takes a planet to rotate a complete turn Rotational period (The Earth's rotational period is 24 hours)
The layers of mist and gases that surround a planet Atmosphere
What does atmosphere mean? Atmos-steam; sphere-ball
One of the gases in our atmosphere that is necessary for life Oxygen
Part of an asteroid that has come through the Earth's atmosphere and reached the surface of the Earth Meteorite
The imaginary line that divides the entire Earth in half between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere Equator
Half of the Earth Hemisphere
The outermost layer of the Earth containing the oceans, dirt, rock and mountains Crust
The layer of the Earth just below the Earth's crust and above the Earth's core; it is made of semisolid rock Mantle
Melted rock found in the mantle of the Earth Magma
The 7 things that make Earth the only planet that can support life Perfect distance from the sun, perfect mass (size), pefect rotation, perfect atmosphere, perfect tilt, perfect land, perfect magnetosphere
How do those things help us live on Earth? They protect us from too much heat, wind and dangerous particles and give us enough oxygen and gravity.
Why do we have different seasons? The earth is permanently tilted in one direction.
What are the four major sections of the earth? (Be able to identify them also) Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Created by: Snyderpartyof7