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NGS1 Sem. 2

A review of concepts and vocabulary for Semester 1 of NGS1.

QuestionAnswer
Magma Molten (melted) rock material that is still underground.
Lava Molten (melted) rock material that is on the Earth's surface.
Epicenter The location on the Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus. The intensity will be greatest here.
Focus The underground location where the fault slip occurs to trigger an earthquake.
Crust The Earth's outermost layer is made of cool, rigid rock.
Mantle This layer is made of warm rock that is solid but capable of gradual flow and deformation.
Outer Core This layer is made of liquid iron and nickel due to the intense heat. Its convection currents cause Earth's magnetic field.
Inner Core The Earth's innermost layer is made of solid iron and nickel due to the intense pressure.
Oceanic plate This type of tectonic plate or crust is more dense than the other.
Continental plate This type of tectonic plate or crust is less dense than the other.
Seismic Waves The energy released from a fault slip (an earthquake) travels out in all directions as P-waves, S-waves, and L-waves - each with their own different speed and type of motion.
Subduction The oceanic plate is slowly moving under the other plate back into the mantle (in a convergent boundary). This creates a deep sea trench and volcanic activity nearby.
Divergent plate boundary (O-O) Where the plates pull apart and new crust is formed. Here this results in seafloor spreading.
Divergent plate boundary (C-C) Where the plates pull apart and new crust is formed. Here this results in rift valleys.
Convergent plate boundary (C-C) Where the plates push towards each other. Here this results in the building of steep mountains that are NOT volcanic)
Convergent plate boundary (O-C) Where the plates push towards each other. Here this results in an ocean trench offshore and coastal mountains with volcanic activity.
Convergent plate boundary (O-O) Where the plates push towards each other. Here this results in an ocean trench and a nearby volcanic island arc.
Transform Fault plate boundary (any) Where the plates slide past each other. The resulting friction form faults that eventually release energy as earthquakes. They are NOT volcanic.
Created by: john.boren