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AP Bio - Final Rev.

Block Final Review!

The sporophyte generation is dominant in ______. Diploids, or vascular plants
______ plants must live near a supply of water for reproduction. Nonvascular
Soil is the primary place where plants obtain _____ and _____. Water and Nutrients
Plant cells have a _____ made of cellulose. Cell wall
Algae and all plants store food as _____. Starch
Define Hydroponics A method of growing plants without soil
The gametophyte of mosses produces the _____ Haploid gametes that develop into the sporophyte
Angiosperms produce ______. Ovaries and embryo sacs
Plants that live for only one year or less are called ______. Annuals
The female part of the plant in moss is called _______. Archegonium
The mesophyll layer of the leaf is where most _____ takes place. Photosynthesis
The waxy layer on the leaf is called ______. Cuticle
The two stages of the alteration of generations are ______ and ______. Diploid and Haploid
Radishes and sweet potatoes are (roots/stems). Roots
Why do nonvascular plants need to rely on water? Water both sustains them, and acts as a medium for reproduction
Define root Underground part of a seeded plant body
Define leaf Organ functioning for photosynthesis and transpiration, attached to stem
Define stem The main stalk of a plant
Define cuticle The outermost layer of the skin on plants, waxy layer
Define vascular plant Plant with tissues like phloem and xylem that are able to transport water and minerals
Define seed Plant ovule containing an embryo
Ovule Contains the embryo sac and is surrounded by the nucellus, that develops into a seed after fertilization
Cotyledon Apart of the embryo within a seed; primary leaf.
Sorus Cluster of sporangia borne on the underside of a fern frond
Cones Specialized reproductive structures of the sporophyte
Frond The leaf of a fern
Pollen grain Microspore of seed plants containing male gametophyte
Embryo Thin walled with dense cytoplasm protected by a seed coat
Gymnosperm Woody, vascular plants without enclosed seeds
Prothallus Small, flat gametophyte with reproductive organs like ferns
Rhizome Underground stem that sends out roots and shoots from nodes
What are key differences between monocots and dicots? Monocots have one cotyledon (vs. 2), the leaves are vein-like (vs. netlike), flowers are in multiples of threes (vs. fours or fives), and the stem have vascular bundles (instead of rings)
Where are the actively dividing meristems? Where growth takes place, both in the root and shoot of a plant
How can you tell, from the lack of something on the outer trunk, that a plant has only primary and no secondary growth? Bark
What is periderm Bark
What’s the most abundant ground tissue? Parenchyma
The trunk of a tree becomes thick and woody due to primary or secondary growth? Secondary
What type of vascular tissue transports sugar? Phloem
What happens with girdling a tree? Tree dies due to the living layer being stripped
How does water pass from one tracheid tube to another in the xylem tissue? The cell walls at both ends are lost when the cells die, transforming the sack of vessel elements into a continued tube through which water can move
What helps to increase the surface areas of roots? Root hairs
What forms over the tips of roots to protect them? Root caps
What are the steps in which water and minerals enter the root hairs on their way to the xylem? Epidermis, Vascular Cylinder: cortex, endodermis, pericycle, phloem, xylem
What is heartwood? The older, nonliving central wood of a tree
In what order do the tissues form inside of the stem? In secondary growth: Bark: Epidermis, Cork, Cortex, Phloem, Xylem, Pith
What is the purpose of the stomata? Enable carbon dioxide to enter the leaf rapidly and allow oxygen and water vapor to exit
A sweet potato is a _____, while a white potato is a ________. Root, stem
An iris bulb flower is a ________, also called a _______. Underground Stem, Rhizome
Nutrients inside of a seed are _________. Starches
What type of relationship do mycorrhiza have with plant roots? Symbiotic
What happens to plants if this relation is lost? Less nitrogen to go around, possible withering of plant
Moving minerals and water into roots requires energy called ________. Osmosis
What is the function of plasmodesmata? Allows something, like energy or nutrients, to go from one cell to another
Why do some plants need nitrogen from the air to convert into another form? The plants simply can’t use that form of nitrogen. Nitrates make it usable
What are the nodules on legume plants called? Swellings on roots that fix nitrogen for plants
What does the cohesion tension theory explain? How water is pulled upward by a negative pressure called tension
Define transpiration Plants loss of water through stomates on leaves
Can water flow up and down xylem tubes? No, only up
Opening and closing of the stomata helps to regulate ________ and ________. Water, carbon dioxide
What conditions cause plants to lose more water through their leaves? Temperature may be too high, water exits via transpiration
What theory is accepted for the movement of sugars in plants? Guttation
In moving sugar, the roots become the _______ and the leaves are the _________. Sink, source
Define xylem Compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and conducts water & nutrients upward
Define phloem Part of vascular bundle consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, parenchyma, and fibers forming the food-conducting tissue of a plant
What types of cells are xylem and phloem made of? Both are constructed from parenchyma
What percentage of the atmosphere contains nitrogen? 78%
Define dermal and vascular tissue 2 out of 3 systems found in a vascular plant. The dermal tissue creates the outer covering of a plant body while ground tissues creates the internals
Describe parenchyma Primary tissue of higher plants; composed of thin-walled cells.
Describe collenchyma Tissue with thickened walls capable of stretching and fit close together; found in young stems and petioles
Describe sclerenchyma A strengthening tissue with heavily lignified walls
Created by: CommanderJonno
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