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Waste Manage Q1

Modules 1 to 3

What is waste Anything useless or unwanted
What is municipal solid waste Nonhazardous wastes from municipalities requiring collection, transport, and disposal
Examples of residential wastes Paper, food wastes, plastics
Examples of construction wastes Lumber, metal, glass
Trash vs rubbish vs garbage Trash is bulky and not collected routinely. Rubbish is smaller parts that can be collected. Garbage is food waste.
What does NIMBY mean Not in my backyard
When we're incinerators popular 1900s
What makes a sanitary landfill? Waste is covered by a material to protect environment/people
Name an epic failure of a waste disposal attempt Love canal
6 elements of a waste management system Generation knowledge, at source handling, collection, transport, processing, disposal
What does 40/52 refer to? A facility or transfer station has to be within 40km or 52 minutes
What is the hierarchy of the 4 Rs (from most effective to least) Reduction- prevents plus is cheap Reuse- prevents Recycle- doesn't actually prevent Recover- not prevention
Issues with waste management Qualified workers, regulations, money, hazards, data interpretation
What does SIC mean Standard industrial classification
What is a dumpster dive A sampling technique where there is a pile of trash that is divided into quarters until 90kg is achieved. This is sorted and weighed.
Which SIC numyers are the worst 3 and 6
Why is specific weight important Determines landfill size needed, vehicle size needed
What is the compaction ratio CR=Vf-Vi
What is the volume reduction VR= 100 (1-CR)
Why is moisture content important Impacts specific weight and is used to estimate leachate generation
What is proximate analysis Involves moisture loss, organic and inorganic carbon contents, and ash content.
Why is proximate analysis important Helps to determine if incineration of that material will produce energy
What is ultimate analysis Involves determining major elements (CHONS), moisture content, ash content, and optional things
What is clinker and what material can form it Clinker is in cement and is formed from ash
Why is ultimate analysis important Tells you if the waste can be biodegraded, energy content, if sulfur dioxide will be an issue for incineration, moisture affects combustibility,
Methods of determining how much auxillary fuel needed for incineration Math (ew) Bomb calorimeter
Biological properties/things to consider Crude fiber content, synthetic organic content, biodegradation rate, odor generation, biodegradability.
How does crude fiber content impact waste management? Higher fiber content reduces biodegradation
Examples of crude fiber cellulose, lignin, cotton, leather, wool
How do you calculate particle size (length + width)/2
Why is particle size important Impacts selection of waste handling equipment
Why is it important to know field capacity? Impacts leachate generation
As field capacity increases, the amount of moisture that can be held increases.... therefore does leachate generation go up, or down? Down
Why might you want to know hydraulic conductivity? Influences vertical and horizontal movement of gases and leachate
Are odors likely to come from anaerobic or aerobic decomposition? Anaerobic
What percentage of municipal dry waste is non combustible? 12-20
Methods of physical transformation Component separation, volume reduction, size reduction
Differentiate between volume and size reduction Volume reduction is compacting it to increase density. Size reduction is making the item smaller, which may actually increase volume (ex paper)
Combustion vs pyrolysis vs gasification combustion is a reaction with EXCESS oxygen Pyrolysis is thermal cracking with NO oxygen Gasification is PARTIAL combustion
How can biofuel be formed the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose, fermented to ethyl alcohol or biofuel
The higher the lignin content the _______ the biodegradation factor lower
Why are transformations important? improved efficiency/segregation, materials recovery, and energy recovery
Created by: swilson67



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