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AirQuality 2

Quiz 3- Weather dispersions, inversions, and pollution

What is meteorology? Study of atmospheric phenomena
Four classes of episodes Local, urban, regional, and transborder
What is the driving force behind weather? The distribution of energy to the atmosphere.
What factors affect energy redistribution? Heat loss/gain, air mass movements, and topography
How does air move? Changes in temperature, pressure, and moisture.
Differentiate between the two types of air movements. Wind is horizontal, caused by the coriolus effect. Currents are vertical.
What is the coriolus effect? Air is deflected as it moves north to south by the planets rotational movement
Hadley cells- explain Because hot air rises, the theory is that cool air should be drawn from the poles in a convectional manner.
Explain parcel theory. A parcel is a fixed volume with fixed molecule number. A warm parcel rises, the pressure drops and the parcel expands. The parcel cools, sinks, pressure goes up, and parcel condenses. Think of convection.
Adiabatic vs environmental lapse rates The adiabatic lapse rate is the theory- temp increase of 1 per 100m. The environmental lapse rate may differ from adiabatic until 1000m altitude
How might a water body affect local weather? During the day, land is warmer, so air rises from land and cools over the ocean before cycling back to land. At night, the land is cooler so air rises from the ocean and cools over the land.
Why does air often get trapped in valleys? The air cannot escape from the valley because there is a denser cooler layer on top of the valley.
What's the chimney effect? When the sun rise/sets, it hits one side of the valley, heating that part of the cool layer up and allowing trapped air to escape.
Explain the urban heat island. Similar to how oceans affect local weather in that it differs night and day. Buildings have more SA so adsorb more heat during day; heat rises, moves to outskirts and cools there. At night, warm air rises from outskirts and moves to buildings.
How are dispersion and pollution episodes related? More dispersion means less episodes.
Factors affecting dispersion. Source characteristics, winds, currents, and topography.
When does a coning plume occur? When the environmental laps rate is close to adiabatic, or when there is an isothermal lapse rate.
When does a looping plume occur? When the temperature decreases with altitude compared to adiabatic
When does a fanning plume occur? When the temperature increases with altitude compared to adiabatic.
Types of local inversions Fumigating (downward sloped) Lofting (stays above certain point) Trapped
How might you be able to determine what inversion will occur from the graph? Whenever there is an angular change in env lapse rate, there is a barrier.
Urban inversions radiational (valleys) or subsidence (hi pressure cell sandwich)
Air dispersion models Mathematical, point source, area source, and line source.
Created by: swilson67