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BIO 315

Part 2

Streptomyces- An important bacteria that we use to create antibiotics and it has linear chromosome
E.Coli bacteria Used to created strains of protein like insulin
Pseudomonas a very pathogenic bacteria that helps clean industrial contaminates specifically Toluene
Why do researches study bacteria is it because they are cheap and reproduce quickly? The main reason we study bacteria is because they are composed on on chromosome and one gene and if you manipulate the gene you change the phenotype
Strain (def?) A strain is a genetically different cell that may have different phenotype
Growth of bacteria is related to The number of bacteria not size
Salmonella gives us food-borne illness and is pathogenic
Colony of cells (def?) A group of cells coming from a single mother cell
Who answer the question- Do bacteria Strain exchange genetic information, is there genetic recombination? The question was answer by Lederberg's experiment, where used auxotrophic E.Coli bacteria, he proved that is was due to genetic exchange that auxotrophic bacteria grew not only because of genetic reversion
Auxotrophic mutant A mutational strain of a microorganism that requires additional nutritional requirements in addition to the those of the normal, wild, or prototrophic strain
Prototrophic strain the un-mutated, normal, or wild strain the does not need any additional requirements in the medium
A bacterial medium is composed of what elements? Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Mutation (def?) Change in the genetic material
Genetic reversion rate (def?) A genetic reversion is a point mutation which changes the mutated nucleotide back to its original state
What is the genetic reversion rate for one mutation in a 10^8 medium? 10^-6 to 10^-7, around 10 to 100 cells in the medium
What is the genetic reversion rate for two mutation in a 10^8 medium? 10^-12 to 10^-14
What is the genetic reversion rate for three mutation in a 10^8 medium? 10^-18 to 10^-21
What did Lederberg use to disprove the argument that dead cells in the medium where not giving the gene to the auxotrophic bacteria Lederberge used cell lysate which removed all the dead cells
Borrellia Has linear chromosomes and causes lyme disease
Agrobacterium Have more than one chromosome
What are the three main reason we find genes on Plasmids? Plasmids are present for survival like antibiotic resistance, breaking down toxic chemicals and Symbiosis
Genome Is ALL the DNA is the cell including plasmid DNA in bacteria and mitochondrial DNA in Eukaryotes
Replicon is the origin of replication in a chromosome
plasmid copy number IS CONTROLLED BY THE INITIATION OF CHROMOSOMAL REPLICATION, and could have one to hundreds of copies
Clostridium Botulinum toxin is a type of bacteriophage DNA in bacteria to fight foreign bodies hint hint viruses
What is the host bacterial cell for pSym plasmid and what does it do? Rhizobrium does nitrogen fixation
What is the host bacterial cell for pTi plasmid and what does it do? Agrobacterium and its conducts tumor formation in plants
What is the host bacterial cell for pTol plasmid and what does it do? Pseudomonas and it degrades Toluene
What is the host bacterial cell for pR773 plasmid and what does it do? E. Coli and arsenic resistance
What is the host bacterial cell for pWR100 plasmid and what does it do? Shigella flexneri and allows entry into the host
Incompatible plasmid (def?) plasmid that is not able to be stable in a population of cells
Is the origin of replication indistinguishable? The origin of replication is distinguishable and replication control treats two identical replication centers as separate and independent
mutant (def?) a cell or strain that had a change in the DNA sequence compared to the wild type and we used chemicals and UV to cause mutations
Allies (def?) result of a phenotypic change due to a mutation in a gene, allele means morph of another from
Gene how is it written three letters, italicized and last letter is capitalized ex: lacZ
Protein how is it written three letter first and last capital and non-italcized ex:LacZ
Exoplysaccharide mutant type contains capsules and are smooth colonies
Serratia marcesens produce a red pigment and are found on cathaders in hospitals
Strepotmycin a type of antibiotic
Phenotypic screening we used two duplicate plates- one where it contains a full nutritional support ad the other which lacks a nutrient, now the colony that grows in the support plate but doesnt grow in the partial support plate is a mutant
Replia Plating used to screen phenotypes hat can be identified fro phenotypic selections, similar to coping the colony onto different mediums
Lenski's experiment Showed that mutations are not aways bad or slow, he created 12 cultures of E.coli cells and had them in a glucose medium and experimented for around 5 years where he had 10,000 generations and stored bacteria every 75 days
Relative fitness ratio of mutant to prototrophic cells
Lenski's relative fitness in the cell helped in what? the mutations resulted in fitness gain in cellular stress response
who proved that mutations could occur spontaneously and without selective pressure? It was from Lederberg's experiment
Restriction enzymes they are like molecular scissors that cut DNA in a recognized place and usually cuts it into 4,6, or 8 base pairs
Cohesive or sticky endes short, single strand overhangs that if they want to be ligated by DNA ligase they had needed to be cut by the same Restriction enzyme
Blunt ends like a blunt, flat and could be ligated to different blunt ends that were not cut by the same restriction enzymes
DNA ligase attaches the 5' phosphate groups to the 3' hydroxyl end and reforms the phosphodiester bond b
Molecular cloning or DNA cloning the process of process of recombination of DNA
What are vectors used for Vectors are used to insert recombinant DNA molecules in a recipient host bacterial cell
What are the three types of vectors Plasmid, phages, and cosmids
Who is the person who first used plamids Cohen in Stanford in 1970
What are the traits that we look for in plasmid Origin or replication, selectable marker gene, multiple cloning sites, small size, high copy number
Origin of replication there are three types:1-ones that have replication sites but make one copy 2- ones that make multiple copies with only one restriction site 3- ones that have no restriction site but are able to combine to the bacterial genome
selective marker gene as stated in the term: it is a selectable marker which select for cells that have successfully taken up the plasmid for the purpose of expressing the insert and it allows us to see which bacteria has the plasmid
multiple cloning sites (MCS) a plasmid with multiple restriction site that has a larger number of restriction enzymes that are able to cut the plasmid
small size we want a small size where we could place a large piece of DNA of interest
high copy number a trait we want due to our interest in having many copies
Blue-white selection a technique used to test if your gene of interest is present in the plasmid of the bacteria and is s technique used without any antibiotic
the white color produce from the blue-white seletion does it contain the gene of interest or does the blue color show white color
LacZ alpha from the multiple cloning complex and LacZ omega form what complex both LacZ alpa and LacZ omega form a functional beta-galactosidase that turns the cell blue once x-gel is placed in the cell
Phage vectors As presented in the name phages which means viruses,
One set back that we had to fix with phage vectors is what Phage usually integrate into the bacterial genome as a result we had to remove the integration excision gene to stop it from integrating
Does removing the integration excision gene affect viral replication it does not, one it is cut out we place our gene of interest and have it replicate
Cosmid break down the word Cos plus plasmid= cosmid and cosmid is a type of hybride plasmid that contains Lambda phage cos sequence
Cosmid vectors come from what cosmid come from Lambda phage
Cosmid have how much killobase? 35-45 kb
Phage have how much killobase? 20-25 kb
plasmid have how much killobase? 10-15 kb
genetics refers to the study of specific genes and there functions
genomics deals with the collective properties and quantifications of genes
genomics focuses on what aspects structure, function, evolution, mapping, and "adgenting"
Walter gilbert developed a chemical degrative method for DNA sequencing
Sanger developed a enzymatic method or chain termination method which has three steps that use DNA polymer called Dideoxy sequencing, step 1 cloning, step 2 synthesis of the gene of interest using DNA polymerase enzyme step 3 electrophoresis to separate the fragments of DNA based on lengths
What is dideoxribose? this is when the -OH on the 3' carbon is replaced by a hydrogen and it stops the elongation of the the nucleotide backbone, as a result the phosphdiester bond is not able to form
What does CFU stand for Colony forming units, these are bacteria that have the potential of forming colonies
WHat is Eco R1 Eco R1 is a restriction site where we are able to cut using a restriction enzyme and insert the gene of interest
Trait (def?) the properties we desire in a plasmid
"Primer Walking" what is it and how are the primers positioned it is a new method to of creating repeated rounds of sequencing, the primers are position with the 5' end of one primer to the other end and they overlap,
What are the step of the shotgun technique? The shotgun technique first fragment the DNA by DNA physical sharing second pyrosquencing third t the the computer analyses it and finally after looking at the overlap region we have to multiply the genome by 10 times due to random data
Pathogenesis a process used by bacteria to produce disease
Do pathogenic bacteria want to harm their host cell NO they want Food and shelter like any other organism however for them to obtain their food they need to destroy their host tissue
Commensal bacteria (def?) bacteria the live in a host obtain food and shelter but dont harm their host like E.Coli bacteria
Normal microbiota aggregates of microorganism that live in or reside in human tissue or bio fluids
What are the three aspects of pathogenic bacteria Attach to there host and get into it, then avoid the immune system or the host defense system, and finally damage their host by eating away their tissue
What do pathogenic bacteria release for them to be able to avoid their host immune response Pathogenic bacteria are able to produce specific elements and these elements are encoded by there genetic material
What is genetic mobility the ability of bacteria to be able to transfer or exchange the specif elements need to evade their host defense system either between strains or between bacteria
Virulence factors produces of pathogenic bacterial that allow it to better cause diseases and they are only present in pathogenic bacteria
VIRULENCE FACTORS ALLOW TO DO WHAT evade host defense system, access into the tissue, and get the nurtures by damaging cells or steeling them
Neisseria Gonorrhoeae what is it's virulence factors has three factors- fimbriae which allows it to attach to host cell, IgA protein allows it to change it's surface proteins to evade host defense, and LOS ( which is an endotoxin that causes inflammation)
Bordetella what is it's virulence factors causes whooping cough and they are Fimbriae, pertussis toxin, and invasive adenylate cyclase
E.Coli O157;H7 what is it's virulence factors cuases kidney failure, hemorrhasic colitis, and kidney failure shiga toxin
Helicobecter pylori what is it's virulence factors causes ulcers and gastiris and its virulence factor is Urease
Streptococuccus pneumoniae what is it's virulence factors the factors are capsule, pneumolysin, and autolysin and it causes pnemonia, and meningitus
Streptococuccus pyogene what is it's virulence factors the factors are capsule, M protein, Hyaluronidase, and streptokinase, and it causes various skin, throat and systematic infections
Asymptomatic (def?) presenting no symptoms to a disease
What are the two special aspects of Fimbria 1- they are able to make the electrostatic repulsion between the surface of the host and bacteria cell larger 2- they are able to change due to genetic recombination to evade the defense system
Endotoxins (def?) present in the CW and produce an inflammatory response
Gram negative have what type of toxin and where endotoxin and present in the lipopolysaccide layer (LPS)
Gram positive have what type of toxin and where endotoxin and present in the Lipothichotic acid (LTA)
Toxin a chemical or poison that is produced by an organism to harm another
Exotoxins (def?) release outside the cell
What are the three types of exotoxins A-B toxins, Cytotoxin, superantigen
A-B toxin have two sub units A and B, B binds to the host cell receptor and A act harmfully in the cell
Cytotoxin any toxin that is toxic in the cell and are categorized by what part of the cell they affect
superantigen they nonspecifically simulate T-Cells which cause to release a large amount of Cytokins
Cytokine (def?) Cytokin is a category of signaling molecule that mediate and regulate immunity inflammation and hematopoisis
What is the most common endotoxin the endotoxin due to gram negative bacteria
What are the three parts of the Lipopolysaccarde in gram negative bacteria O-antigen, Core proteins, Lipid A
What is special about O-antigen It contains a continuing polysaccharide unit that are strain specific that allow out immune response to identify them and we are able to categorize them or serotyping based on he O-antigen
Core protein in lipopolysaccharide dont have much of a function other than separate the Lipid A and the O-antigen
Lipid A what about it (lol) closest to the Cell wall and anchors itself to the outer membrane due to the hydrophobic region, it also contains an unusual fatty acid region and causes toxicity
Nesisseria meningitidis a gram negative bacteria, and cause inflammation in the outer layer of the brain and the spinal cord
Lipooligisaccharide (LOS) is when the gram negative bacteria lack the O-antigen and only has the lipid A and core proteins and proved that Lipid A is responsible for the toxicity
Endotoxins in gram positive bacteria are where Are present in the CW and are located in the Lipotheicotic acid and they cause fever, inflammation, complement activation, b cell proliferation, and stimulation clotting cascade
Exotoxins are group based on what features Structure, molecular activities, and cellular activity
Diphtheria toxin, tetanus toxin, and Botulinum toxin have what type of exotoxin structure they have a single B subunit that limits it to only one receptor
Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin have what type of exotoxin feature multiple B sub-units with the same structure as a result they are able to bind to many of the same receptors
Pertussistoxin toxin have what type of exotoxin feature have multiple B subunits with different structure that allow it to bind to different and many subunits
Corynebacterium diphteriae produces what type of toxin it produces A-B toxin which is absorbed by the circulatory system and affect many organs
how does the A-B toxin work give me the steps of the whole cycle first B subunit binds to the receptor of the host cell and then through endocytosis the whole complex is engulfed into an endosome, the endosome has a high PH and degrades the complex and the A subunit leaves through channel proteins and inhibits EF2
What does A-B complex create as a by product once EF2 is inhibited the complex creates ADP- ribosylation
What does the elongation factor 2 (EF2) do? EF2 is responsible for the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA
What is so special about E.Coli 0157:H7 This type of E.coli has a specific strain 0157:H7 that produces a shiga toxin and there are a lot of shiga receptors in the kidney
Does the shiga toxin produced by E.coli 0157:H7 effect animal no, cows, deer, pigs dont have the recepotor for the shiga toxin as a result they could have the bacteria and the toxin produce and it wont affect them
Pertusin toxin and Cholera toxin are similar how they both create an imbalance in H2O and ions and they have a product of adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic AMP (cAMP)
What does SNARE stand for Soluble NSF attachment proteins
SNAP proteins or NSF are present where they are key senaptic components in the brain for the inhibition and the simulation of contraction
What causes Flaccid paralysis A-B toxin where there is not no muscular contraction
What are the three protein need to release a neurotransmitter One the surface of the neurotransmitter surface synaptobrevin is attached and SNAP- 25 protein attaches and the synthaix binds to SNAP 25 to release the transmitter
How does the Botulin toxin inhibit the release of neurotransmitters like actyl colin Once the B subunit binds to the axon and gets into the endosome A subunit goes and binds to SNAP 25 protein and breaks it so it cant attach to synaptobrevin
How does the Tetnas toxin inhibit the release of Glycine and GABA like actyl colin GABA and glycine are inhibitory molecule that inhibit the release of acytlo colin a neurotransmitter by after the B subunit get to the cell the A sub unit goes to the CNS and transfers to the inhibitory neuron and binds to synaptobrevin and breaks it
Where do Cytolsins act or work on? Cytolysins are a type exotoxin/ cytotoxin that acts on the P.M.
Membrane Damaging toxins or MDT what are they and what do they do Membrane damaging toxins disrupt the PM and are able to dirupt the PM without lysis of cell, where the cell are still intact but cant grow or function
What are cytotoxins that affect and lysate blood cells Hemolysis is the lysis of red blood cells
What are the three types of Hemolytsis? Alpha which is parital hemolysis or break down of red blood cells, Beta which is complete breakdown of red blood cells, and gamma which is no hemolysis
What color is produced once we streak alpha hemolytic bacteria A greenish color is produced once we immerse it in a solution of 5% sheep blood and it is due to the break down of hemoglobin
Enteroccocus Facalis is what type of hemolytic bacteria it is a gamma hemolytic bacteria
Streptococcus pneumonia and streptococcus mutans are examples of what type of hemolytic bacteria they are a type of alpha hemolytic bacteria
Streptococcus pyogeness is what type of hemolytic bacteria a beta hemolytic bacteria
Are viruses, E. coli, and staphlococcus aureu are to be beat hemolysis yes they could
What are the three types of cytolysins 1- ones that attach the eukaryotic by dissolving the phosphilipids in the bilayer 2- ones that attack the hydrophbic part of the PM aka the fattyy acids 3- ones that form Porins or porforming toxins
Staphlococcos aureus B toxins, phospho lipase C, and Clostridum perfingens are what type of Cytolysins type (1) ones that attach the eukaryotic by dissolving the phosphilipids in the bilayer
26 amino acid long staphlococcus aureus toxin , Bacillius subtillis toxin, and cytolsin from pseudomonas aeruginosa are what type of Cytolysins type (2) ones that attack the hydrophbic part of the PM aka the fattyy acids
Clostridum perfringens bacteria, and Hemolysin from E.Coil are what type of Cytolysins type (3) ones that form Porins or porforming toxins
What is the size of the pores created by Pore forming cytolsin 10-15 nanometers
What is the size of the pores created by Cholesterol Dependent cytolsin 25-35 nanometers
Cholesterol Dependent cytolsin or CDC are what they exit in gram positive bacterial cells, and need cholesterol to form the channels to form the pores on the target cell membranes
Do Cholesterol Dependent cytolsin (CDC) have an extra step if so what is it? They have a pre pore step where multiple Cholesterol Dependent cytolsin aggregate and form a oligomerize a
What does antigen mean it mean that it could be recognized by our immune system like presenting marker
B type cells they bind to the antigen and we get the antigen presenting complex
What is need to have a complex between the antigen presenting cell and a helper T cell you need a major histocompatibility complex 2 which binds to the CD4 complex which enhance the ability of the T cell to bind
When the receptor complex between antigen presenting cell and the helper T cell how many helper t cells are activated Only 0.001% of helper T cells are activated and little are proliferated and they undergo cytokine reproduction
What is cytokin and why do helper T cell secret them Cytokins are small peptides that are not able to enter the bilayer or the cytoplasm of a cell and they induce an inflammatory response
Why is inflammation a good thing inflammation brings different types of cells to the infected area and localize the infect in that place so it does not spread
Why are so different about superantigens superantigens are able to produce T cells without the CD4 binding complex to the major histocompatibility complex and allows different T cells to be activated
What is Inter-Lukins 2 it is a type of cytokin which induces a strong inflammatory response
Too much inter-lukin 2 will lead to what Toxic shock syndorm (TSS) which could lead to organ failure and death due to the over inflammation
Enterotoxigencin produce what and give an example of a bacteria they produce enterotoxins which are exotoxin and and example is our friend Stapholococcus aureus
what is the percentage of people that have stapholococcus aureus in their nose 20-50%
Stapholococcus aureus and Stapholococcus epidermites are present in what parts of our body present on the skin
What are the percentage of the people who have Stapholococcus aureus in their nose for it to be producing exotoxins 20-50% of the people, Stapholococcus aureus matures over time
Is Stapholococcus aureus heat stable No its heat unstable where above 60˚C it dies and below 7˚ C it dies
Endotons like liposaccharide (LPS) in gram negative bacteria bind to what type of CD? they bind to CD14
Could we have endotoxin and superantigen activated at the same time what is the term called its called Synergistic effect , and For sure, superantigens activate many helper T cell one of which has the unique receptor and co receptor that could bind to CD14 and the endotoxins could be activated
Is both a superantigen and endotoxin are both activated what is the percentage of the two toxins MUCH greater than the sum of both of them combined
Strepotococcus pyogens what disease does it cause it causes step throat
Compare step throat in children and adults the main difference is that in adults most step throat cases are due to a virus while in children its due to steptococcus pyogens
When it comes to Stapholococcus pyogens what are Reservior defined as Reservoirs are people that have Stapholococcus pyogens but dont have any symptoms due to it not being mature enough and overtime the strain changes and become treating
What are the virulence factors for Stapholococcus pyogens? Capsule, Hyalurondiase, Streptokinase, and M protein
What is unique about the virulence factors of Stapholococcus pyogens if you remove one you dont prevent pathgenicity
Capsule is one type of virulence factor what does it due it evades the host immune system especially phagocytosis
What are capsule made of they are made of "self molecules" which are made of hydridic acid and complex carbohydrates
Baccellis antraxis has capsule virulence and is able to stay in our body for a long period of time
What is self limiting infection this is a way our body's good bacteria is able to check on the pathogenic bacteria especially in our pharynx
Sequelae defintion like squealing, a condition that is a consequence of a previous disease like Glomerulonephritis and rRheumatic heart disease
Glomerulonephritis a group of diseases that injure the parts of the kidney that filters blood called the glomeruli
Rheumatic heart disease is a damage of one or more heart valves that remain after an episode of acute rheumatic fever
M protein, why is it so special for streptococcus pyogens this allow the cell to adapt or change it surface protein by utlizing IgA and IgG and this allow it to evade the immune system
How many strains of M protein are there and is there one that is very harmful there are 150 strains of M protein and antibodies against one cant act against another, M 5 protein is important
What is so special about M5 protein in Streptococcus pyrogens its sequence is complementary to the heart muscle myosin sequence as a result antibodies against the M5 virulence protein can kill our own heart muscle myosin
What is Horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer its the movement of genetic material from unicellular organism to multicellular organisms
Vertical gene transfer what is that gene transfer from mother to child
How is genetic material passed 1- conjugation (tranfer of plasmid) 2-transposable elements or jumping genes on a chromosome 3- plasmid transformation 4- temperate lysogenic phages, phages that replicate through the lytic cycle or viral phages
What did Ed Long discover and why is he so special He discovered and found archaea in normal environments with regular oxygen level and used metagenomics to categories euryarchaeota and crenarchaeota
Microbiaecology study of the interaction of microbes with their surrounding
Do microbes interact with their neighboring microbes yes the interaction is either direct or indirect due to competition of common resources as a result they modify their environment
Microbiology was found how it was founded by growing bacteria in pure cultures
Ecosystems (def?) a community of living organisums in conjunction with the nonliving components interacting as a system
Life on earth is what a collection of ecosystems
Guilds (def?) organisms that have similar processes or function but they are not genetically similar
nonliving components include minerals, air, water, soil
Niche (def?) is the specific functional role a organism has within its environment
What are the conditions of microenviorments O2, pH, and light
what happens it the condition of the microenvironment changes through gene regulation bacteria are able to change their metabolism
biofilms (def?) group or layers of bacteria that aggregate together and and they interact and support each other
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) is a sereted that durign the forth of biofilms formation where it supports the bacteria, forms channels to exchange material, nutrients , and waster between bacteria and it increases antibacterial resistance
Caulobacter is a bacteria that could form biofilms and creates the primary layer
What are the 4 steps of biofilm formation 1- primary layer is created 2- it divides 3- Exopolysaccharide is produced 4- an introduction of secondary microbes into the environment
the experiment on E.Coli k12 established what about biofilms E.Coli K 12 experiment was done using two strains of wild and mutant type of E.coli K 12, where the wild could produce EPS Colanic acid and mutant could not and it established that EPS Colanic acid is need to create biofilms
Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria what is it and what does it have to do with biofilm the EPS., that is produces is called Alginate and they form biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and they adhere to epithelia cells
Do bacterial live in isolation they dont thats why is so hard to have them living in laboratory conditions
what is the totla number of microbial cells 4-6 *10^30
how much carbon is produced by microbial organisms 3.5-5.5*10^17 grams same as plant production
Azotobacter colonies nitrogen fixing bacteria, that convert N2 to amonia so plants could use it
Enrichment cultures use of growth medium to promote the growth of a certain bacteria that would not have been able to survive under laboratory condition
Cultivation independent factor is a way we are able to cultivate bacteria even if they cant grow in laborarty environments, and it broken down into two techniques- direct sequencing method and metagenomics
direct sequencing method DNA is extracted, genes are amplificed using PDR, and use the data bases to find out the unknown organism
Metagenomis dna is extracted, vector and extracted DNA are cut with restriction enzymes, ligation produces plasmid containing community DNA fragments, placed into E.Coli to grow, then used either sequencing or functional genomics to find out the bacteria
what percent of the ocean biomass is microorganisms 98 percent
What are the common ion in the ocean K,P, Mg, Na, Cl, and 75 percent is Na and Cl
What element is low in concentration in the oceans N, P, and Fe causes a oligotrophyic nature for microorganisms
Dead zone (def?) Area with no O2 and Eukaryota organism cant survive
Oligotrophy nature of microorganism is where microorganism use little O2 or using nutrients at very low concentrations.
Overfeeding of microorganism marine microbes can quickly lead to anoxic water states (so-called “dead zone” formation) if they have too much O2 and carbon from phytoplakton
how many microorganism per ml in oceans 10^8 cells per ml
What are the three zones the ocean is divide to surface layer, mid water zone, and deep water zone
surface layer zone give me the depth, and what lives there around 0-200 m and cyanobacteria live there and phytoplankon due to light penetrating through it
mid water zone what lives there and what do viruses do zooplankton live there and through viral lysis of photoplankon they are able to release nutrient down to the zooplankton and the heterotorphes to eat depth of 200-400 m temp or 2-3 C
deep water zone what organism live there very deep down high pressure and Piezophiles and barophiles are able to live there due to the unsaturated fatty acids in their PM
How many viruses are in the ocean 10^30
Dilution to extinction method away we are able isolate and analyze oligotrophic organisms
What are the steps of Dilution to extinction method 1- collect the sample and count how many microorganism there are 2- dilute the sample until we are able to put one cell per mL of autoclaved seawater (which is seawater that has no organisms) 3 - then centrifuge it
Biomass categories of ecosystems based on vegetation properties and the main factors that effect is temperture and pH
Rhizosphere the area of the soil around the roots of the plants,
What are the four symbiotic relationships between the micoorganism in the rhizosphere and the plant 1- the organisms do nitrogen fixation 2- fix phosphate 3- provide an antibiotics to makes sure no pathogenic bacteria can damage the plant roots 4- also produce hormones to help the plants
Bioremediation the use of microorganism to clean chemicals, they clean the contaminants
Xenobioties chemicals that humans that are nonnatural materials that microorganism are not evolved to degrade or clean the chemicals, they have to evolve which takes time
Biosimulation providing missing materials like O2 and limited nutrients like N and P to increase the activity of resident microbes
Bioaugmentation addition of bacteria know to degrade the contaminates
Created by: mharb