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Intro to Geophysics

A compilation of geophysical measurements taken at or near the Earth’s surface that are influenced by the internal distribution of physical properties. What is a survey
These are generated at a source and propagate through the subsurface What are seismic waves?
Travel times of waves refracted or reflected at geological boundaries are recorded by this instrument on the land surface. What is a geophone?
Travel times can be converted to this and mapped, to provide a picture of the subsurface What is depth?
Seismic waves are parcels of this type of energy What is elastic strain?
These waves propagate along a boundary and have a retrograde elliptical particle motion Rayleigh Waves
This is the product of rock density and its wave velocity Acoustic Impedance
This is the ratio of amplitude of the reflected ray to the amplitude of the incident ray. Reflection Coefficient
These define three orthogonal planes on which the stresses are normal principle axes
This law relates stress to strain in the elastic field Hooke’s Law
This is the elastic modulus that defines the relationship between stress and strain for P-waves Axial modulus
This is the ratio of longitudinal strain to lateral strain. Poisson's Ratio
This is the decrease of wave amplitude with propagation Attenuation
This occurs when the angle of incidence of a seismic wave is greater than the critical angle What is total internal internal reflection
This type of wave travels along the interface between layers of low and high velocity and eventually reaches the surface What is the Refracted wave
This method is used to extract a specific signal from an output seismic trace What is cross-correlation
These are pneumatic sources charged with very high-pressure compressed air Air guns
These devices convert ground motion to an electrical signal Transducers
Geometrical spreading and absorption are types of this phenomena attenuation
These waves produce a signal termed “ground roll” on seismograms What are Rayleigh Waves
This law describes the relationship between the angle of incidence and the velocities between the layers What is Snell’s Law
This is the uniform velocity in a homogenous geologic unit, or an average velocity over a depth interval of thickness Interval Velocity
This is the the difference between the travel times t2 and t2 of reflected-ray arrivals recorded at two offset distances x1 and x2 Moveout
These are rays that return to the surface after reflection from more than one interface. Multiples
This represents the combined response of the layered ground and the recording system to a seismic pulse What is the seismic trace
This is a collection of seismic traces relating to the seismic response at one surface mid-point common midpoint gather (CMP)
This is the process of averaging out the noise and increasing the signal. What is stacking?
Created by: jmoreno55