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Psychology 6

Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential as a result of experience.
Orienting reflex The tendency of a person or animal to orient its sense toward unexpected stimuli.
Habituation The tendency of a person or animal to ignore repeated stimuli.
Dishabituation To begin re-responding to a stimulus to which one had been hibituated.
Unconditioned stimulus (US) A stimulus that naturally elicits a response in a person or animal.
Unconditioned response (UR) The response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Neutral stimulus (NS) A stimulus that does not naturally elicit an unconditioned response in a person or animal.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that elicits a conditioned response in a person or animal.
Conditioned response (CR) The response elicited by a conditioned stimulus in a person or animal.
Classical conditioning Learning that occurs when a NS is repeatedly paired with an US causing the NS to become a CS with same power as the US to elicit the response in a person or animal.
Contiguity The degree to which two stimuli follow one another in time.
Contingency The degree to which the presentation of one stimulus is contingent on the presentation of the other.
Stimulus generalization Responding in a like fashion to a similar stimulus.
Counterconditioning Using classical conditioning to remove an undesired conditioned response in a person or animal.
Stimulus discrimination Responding only to particular stimuli.
Taste aversion Classical conditioning that occurs when a person or animal pairs the experience of nausea with a certain food and becomes conditioned to feel ill at the sight, smell, or idea of the food.
Aversion therapy A type of therapy that uses classical conditioning to condition people to avoid certain stimuli.
Extinction The removal of a conditioned response.
Acquisition The process of learning a conditioned response or behavior.
Spontaneous recovery During extinction, the tendency for a conditioned response to reappear and strengthen over a brief period before reextinguishing.
Operant conditioning A type of learning in which the person or animal learns through the consequences of its behavior.
Law of effect A principle discovered by E.L. Thorndike that states that random behaviors that lead to positive consequences will be strengthened and random behaviors that lead to negative consequences will be weakened.
Reinforcement The strengthening of a response that occurs when the response is rewarded.
Positive reinforcement Strengthening a behavior by adding something pleasant to the environment of the person or animal.
Negative reinforcement Strengthening a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment of the person or animal.
Punishment The weakening of a response that occurs when a behavior leads to an unpleasant consequence.
Positive punishment Weakening a behavior by adding something unpleasant to the person's or animal's environment.
Negative punishment Weakening a behavior by removing something pleasant from the person's or animal's environment.
Operant behavior Behavior that operates on the environment to cause some sort of consequence to occur.
Skinner box A device created by B.F. Skinner to study operant behavior in a compressed time frame, in a Skinner box, an animal is automatically rewarded or punished for engaging in certain behaviors.
Extinction burst A temporary increase in a behavioral response that occurs immediately after extinction has begun.
Shaping Using operant conditioning to build a new behavior in a person or animal by rewarding successive approximations of the desired response.
Schedule of reinforcement The frequency and timing of the reinforcements that a person or animal receives.
Continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded for every instance of the desired response.
Partial reinforcement schedule A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded for only some instances of the desired response.
Fixed ratio schedule A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded for every xth instance of the desired response.
Variable ratio schedule A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded on average for every xth instance of the desired response.
Fixed interval schedule A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded for the first desired response in an xth interval of time.
Variable interval schedule A schedule of reinforcement in which the person or animal is rewarded for the first desired response in an average xth interval of time.
Primary reinforcer A reinforcer that is reinforcing in and of itself.
Secondary reinforcer A reinforcer that is only reinforcing only because it leads to a primary reinforcer.
Token economy A system of operant conditioning in which participants are reinforced with tokens that can later be cashed in for primary reinforcers.
Insight A new way of looking at a problem that leads to a sudden understanding of how to solve it.
Latent learning Learning that cannot be directly observed in a person's or animal's behavior.
Cognitive map A mental representation of the environment.
Observational learning Learning through observation and imitation of other's behavior.
Created by: cpruett8