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Chapter 10

Bio Ch 10 Sexual Reproduction/ Basic Genetics

TermDefinition
Allele Alternative form that a single gene may have for particular trait
Crossing Over Exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis
Diploid Having two copies of each chromosome
Dominant Mendel's name for a specific trait that appeared in the F1 generation
Fertilization Haploid gametes combine forming a diploid cell (1/2 chromosomes from female parent; other 1/2 from male parent)
Gamete Sex cell formed during meiosis
Gene Inherited traits passed from one generation to another
Genetic Recombination A new combination of genes made by crossing over and independent assortment
Genetics Science of heredity
Genotype An organisms allele pairs
Haploid Cell with HALF the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell.
Heterozygous Organism with two different alleles for a specific trait. (Bb)
Homologous Chromosome One of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location
Homozygous Organisms with two of the same alleles for a specific trait
Hybrid Organism heterozygous for a specific trait
Law of Independent Assortment Mendelian law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs during the formation of gametes
Law of Segregation Mendelian law stating that two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis
Meiosis A division process, occurring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid cell produces four haploid cells that are not genetically identical.
Phenotype Observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair.
Polyploidy Having one or more extra sets of all chromosomes, which, in polyploid plants, can often result in greater size and better growth and survival.
Recessive Mendel's name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation.
Created by: AKovach