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Ultrasonics LVL 2

QuestionAnswer
The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave velocities is ___________., Longitudinal waves Shear waves Transverse waves Lamb Waves Lamb Waves
Which of the following would be considered application(s) of ultrasonic techniques?, Determination of a material's elastic modules. Study material's metallurgical structure measure material thickness all
The only significant sound wave mode that travels through a liquid is ___________., Shear wave Long wave Surface wave Rayleigh wave, Long
The acoustic impedance of a material is used to determine the __________., Angle of refraction at an interface Attenuation in material sound energy coupled and reflected at interface beam spread in material energy coupled and reflected at interface
"When angle beam contact testing , increasing the incident angle until the second critical angle is reached results in__________.", surface wave reflection 45° refraction of a shear wave Production of a surface wave None of above, Production of a surface wave
Acoustic energy propagates and different modes. Which of the following represents a mode?, A longitudinal wave. Shear wave, surface wave, all of above
The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears disjointed at the water surface illustrates the phenomenon of __________., Reflection magnification refraction diffraction refraction
The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are relate The thinner the crystal ______________., higher the frequency
The random distribution of crystallographic direction in Alloys with large crystalline structures is a factor in determining ______________., acoustic noise levels selection of test frequency scattering of sound all of above, all of above
The length of the Zone adjacent to a transducer in which functions and sound pressure occur is most likely affected by ________________., frequency of the transducer dia of transducer length of 'ducer cable both A and B, both A and B
The differences in signals received from identical reflectors at different material distances from a transducer may be caused by _____________., Material attenuation beam divergence Near Field effects all of above, all of above
It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than transducer to produce indications of fluctuating amplitude as the transducer is moved laterally if testing is being performed in the _____., Fraunhofer zone Near field Snell field Shadow zone, Near field
"In immersion testing, the near field effects of a transducer may be eliminated by___________.", increasing transducer frequency using a large-diameter transducer using an appropriate water path using a focused transducer, using an appropriate water path
"In far field of UT beam, sound intensity is a ________." Minimum at Maximum at Maximum thru twice the angle (sin Y=C/Df) Maximum at
What may occur in cylinder if the beam divergence results in reflection from wall to wall before reaches the back surface?, multiple ind before the first back Ind for multiple surface reflections Mode conversion lose front surface indications, conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear mode
Where does beam Divergence occur?, Near field Far field At the crystal No-one of the above, Far field
"As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam Divergence of a given diameter Crystal ___________.", Decreases Remains unchanged Remains the same Varies uniformly through each wavelength, Decreases
"As the radius of curvature of a curved lenses increased, the focal length of the lens ____________.", Increases Decreases Remains the same Cannot be determined unless the frequency is known, Increases
"When examining materials for planar flaws oriented parallel to the part surface, what testing method is most often used?", angle beam Through-transmission straight beam dual crystal, straight beam
"If Shear transducer produces a 45° Shear wave in steel, angle produced by same transducer in aluminum specimen would be (VS (steel) =0.323cm ; VS (Al) =0.310cm)", less than 45° greater than 45° 45° more information is required, less than 45°
Rayleigh waves are influenced miss by defects located ___________., close to or on the surface 1 wavelength below the surface 3 wavelengths below the surface 6 wavelengths before the surface, close to or on the surface close to or on the surface
The ultrasonic testing technique in which finger damping is most effective in locating a discontinuity is the _____________., Shear wave technique longitudinal wave technique surface wave technique compressional wave technique, surface wave technique
Lamb waves can be used to detect ______________., laminar-type defects near the surface of the thin material lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment internal voids in diffusion bonds thickness changes in heavy plate material, laminar-type defects near the surface of the thin material
The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that of aluminum or steel is approximately _____________., 1:8 1:4 1:3 1:2, 1:4
What scanning methods could be classed as an immersion type test?, Immersion Tank squirter bubbler method a wheel type transducer all of the above, All of the above
"Steel or AL in Immersion test, water distance appears between initial pulse and front service reflection because of ________.", reduced velocity of sound in water increased velocity of sound in water temperature of water all of the above, reduce velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
What law can be used to calculate the angle of refraction within a metal for both longitudinal and Shear waves?, poisson's ratio law Snell's law Fresnel's field law Charles's law, Snell's law
"Interface between two different materials, impedance difference results in __________.", reflection of entire incident energy at interface absorption of sound division of sound energy into transmitted and reflective modes none of the above, division of sound energy into transmitted and reflected modes
"When using focused transducers, nonsymmetry in a propagated sound beam it may be caused by __________.", packing material variations lens centering or misalignment porosity and lenses all of the above, all of the above
Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the following types of examination?, straight or longitudinal examination. angle beam or Shear wave examination. surface wave or Rayleigh wave examination. all of the above, All of the above
"For Straight beam testing parts with divergent faces can cause ___________." Loss of back reflection No back reflection loss Widened back reflection ind. Narrow back reflection ind, partial or total loss of back reflection
In Immersion, Water Path is adjusted so sound time to send sound thru water is >= to sound time through the test peace sound to travel through the test peace none of the above, is greater than the time required for the sound to travel through the test piece
"In a b scan display, the screen indication length from a discontinuity is related to ____________.", Discontinuity's thickness Discontinuity's length in the direction of the transducer travel Both A and B No-one of the above, The discontinuity's length in the direction of the transducer travel
Which circuit triggers the pulser sweep circuits in an A-scan display?, receiver-amplifier power supply clock damping, clock
"In A-scan, the 'dead zone' refers to ____________.", Distance contained in the near field Area outside the beam spread Distance covered by front surface pulse width and recovery time the area between the near field & far field, the distance covered by the front surface pulse width and recovery time
"On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of a reflected beam?", echo pulse width horizontal screen location signal brightness signal amplitude, signal amplitude
"Of the following scan types, which one can be used to produce a recording of flaw areas superimposed over a plan view of the test piece?", A-scan B-scan C-scan D-scan, C-scan
"An immersion testing in a small tank, and manually operated manipulator is used to _______________.", set the proper water path set the proper transducer angle set the proper index function complete both A and B, complete both A and B
"In straight (normal) beam contact testing, a reduction in the back surface reflection amplitude could indicate _______________.", flaw not normal to the beam a near surface defect inadequate coupling all of the above, All of the above
"In Immersion scanning, the bridge / carriage serves to _________________.", transverse and longitudinal support and move manipulator & scanner tube control the angular scanner tube positioning control scanner tube vertical & angular positioning, support the manipulator & scanner tube & to move it about transfersely & longitudinally
"When adjusting the flaw locating rule for a Shear wave weld inspection, the zero point on the rule must coincide with the ________________.", sound beam exit point of the wedge point directly over the flaw wheel transducer circular scanner, sound beam exit point of the wedge
A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a tire like container filled with couplant is commonly called __________., a rotating scanner an axial scanner a wheel transducer a circular scanner, a wheel transducer
Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major surface is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam?, a broad indication A sharp indication the indication will not show due to improper orientation a broad indication with high amplitude, a sharp indication
Compensation for the variation in Echo height related to variations in discontinuity depth in the material is known as _____________., transfer Attenuation distance amplitude correction (DAC) interpretation, distance amplitude correction (DAC)
Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not dependent on beam angle?, a flat bottom hole a vee notch a side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface & perpendicular to the sound path a disk-shaped laminar reflector, a side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface & perpendicular to the sound path
"During a straight beam ultrasonic test, a discontinuity indication is detected that is small in amplitude compared to the loss in amplitude of back reflection. The orientation of this discontinuity is probably _____________.", parallel to the test surf at an angle to the test surface
A discontinuity is located having an orientation such that its long axis is parallel to the sound beam. The indication from such a discontinuity will be ____________., large in proportion to the length of the discontinuity small in proportion to the le small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity
Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat discs or other shapes parallel to the surface by _____________., rolling machining casting welding, rolling
In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given discontinuity diminish expotentially as the distance increases?, The far field zone the near field zone the dead zone the Fresnel zone, The far field zone
A smooth flat discontinuity is major plane is not perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation may be indicated by ______________., an echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back surface reflection a complete loss of that surface reflecti All of the above
"Using a pulse echo technique, if the major plane of a flat discontinuity is oriented at some angle other than perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation the result may be ____________.", loss of signal linearity loss or lack of a received dis loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo
"As transducer diameter decreases, the beam spread _____________.", Decreases Remains the same increases becomes conical in shape, increases
"A set of standard reference blocks with the same geometrical configuration and dimensions other than the size of the calibration reflectors, e.g., flat bottom holes, is called a set of ___________.", distance amplitude standards area amplitude standar area amplitude standards
The angle at which 90° refraction of a longitudinal sound wave is reached is called _____________., The angle of incidence The first critical angle the angle of maximum reflection the second critical angle, The first critical angle
The control of voltage supplied to the vertical deflection plates of the instrument display in an A-scan UT setup is performed by the _________., sweep generator pulser amplifier circuit second critical angle, amplifier circuit
"Attenuation is a difficult quality to measure accurately, particularly in solid materials, at the test frequencies normally use The overall result usually observed includes other loss mechanisms which can include ________.", beam spread couplant mism All of the above
The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be determined by obtaining ultrasonic responses from __________., a set of distance amplitude reference blocks steel balls located at several different water path distances a set of area amplitude re a set of area amplitude reference blocks
Large grains in a metallic test specimen usually result in ___________., a decreased or loss of back surface reflection large 'hash' or noise indications the decrease in penetration all of the above, All of the above
The total energy loss occurring in all materials is called ___________., attenuation scatter beam spread interface, attenuation
Delay-tip (stand-off) type contact transducers are primary used for _________., defect detection Sound wave characterization thickness measurement or flaw detection in thin materials attenuation measurements, thickness measurement or flaw detection in thin materials
"Acoustical lenses are commonly used for Contour correction. When scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method, use a __________.", focused cup lens convex lens concave lens variable-pitch lens, convex lens
"When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the part will be ___________.", longitudinal shear surface lamb, shear
The angle at which 90° refraction of the shear wave mode occurs is called the __________., first critical angle second critical angle third critical angle angle of reflection, second critical angle
"For aluminum and steel, the longitudinal velocity is approximately ________ the shear velocity.", equal to twice half of four times, twice
Water travel distance for immersion inspection should be ___________., such that the second front reflection does not appear between the first front and back Reflections exactly 76 mm (3 in) less than 76 mm (3 in) always equal to the thickness of t such that the second front reflection does not appear between the first front and back reflections
The electronic circuitry that allows selection and processing of only those signals relating to discontinuities that occur in specific zones of a part is called ___________., an electronic gate an electronic attenuator a distance amplitude correction an electronic gate
"When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the 'hash' or irregular signals that appear in the CRT display of the area being inspected it could be caused by ____________.", fine grains in the structure dirt in the water couplant course grains in the coarse grains in the structure
"In inspecting a 102mm (4in) diameter threaded steel cylinder for radial cracks extending from the root of the threads, it would be preferable to transmit ___________.", Shear waves at an angle to the threads Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylind Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder & perpendicular to the direction of the thread roots
"In an immersion inspection of raw material, the water travel distance should be ___________.", exactly 76mm (3in) equal to 76mm (3in) +/- 13mm (+/-0.5in) equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on the reference standards equal to the thickness of the material, equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on the reference standards
The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters a medium of different velocity than the one from which it came and a line drawn perpendicular to the interface between the two media is called the angle of _______?, incidence refraction rarefaction refraction
The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a reference standard is referred to as _________., Angulation Scanning Correcting for distance amplitude variation Calibration, Calibration
An electron tube in which a beam of elections from the cathode is used to reproduce an image on a display at the end of the tube is refereed to as ________________., an amplifier tube a pulse tube a cathode ray tube a sweep tube, a cathode ray tube
"A grouping of a number of crystals in one transducer, with all contact surfaces in the same plane, and vibrating in phase with each other to act as a single transducer is called a _________________.", focusing crystal crystal mosaic scrubber singl crystal mosaic
The angle of reflection is ____________., equal to the angle of incidence dependant on the couplant used dependant on the frequency used equal to the angle of refraction, equal to the angle of incidence
The angular position of the reflecting surface of a planar discontinuity with respect to the entry surface is referred to as __________., The angle of incidence The angle of refraction the orientation of the discontinuity None of the above, the orientation of the discontinuity
A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called ___________., a continuous wave a peaked DC voltage an ultrasonic wave a pulse, a pulse
"In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the transmitted pulse is referred to as ____________." The pulse length or pulse width pulse amplitude, pulse shape none of above , pulse length or width
The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changes direction of its propagation within the same medium is referred to as_______________. Divergence, impedance angulation reflection reflection
The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passes from one medium to another whose velocity differs from that of the first medium I called _____________. Refraction rarefraction angulation reflection , refraction
The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode ray tube which becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called ______________. An electron gun electron amplifier UT instrument display electron counter, UT instrument display
Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits the shortest wavelength at a given frequency and in a given material? A longitudinal wave compression wave shear wave surface wave, surface wave
"In general, which vibration mode would have greatest penetrating power in a coarse-grained material?", Longitudinal waves Shear waves Transverse waves All of the above modes would have the same penetrating power Longitudinal waves
A UT method where crystal or transducer is parallel to test surface and UT waves enter the material perpendicular to the test surface is ______________., Straight beam testing Angle beam testing Surface wave testing None of the above Straight beam testing
"The distance from a given point on an ultrasonic wave to the next corresponding point is referred to as ___________., Frequency Wavelength velocity Pulse length Wavelength
The speed with which ultrasonic waves travel through a material is known as its ______________., Velocity Pulse repetition rate Pulse recovery rate Ultrasonic response Velocity
A substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid is referred to as ____________., A couplant An ultrasonic dampener A wetting agent None of the above A wetting agent
The ultrasonic transducers most commonly used for discontinuity testing utilize _______________. Magnetostriction principles Piezoelectric principles Mode conversion principles None of the above Piezoelectric principles
"Mechanical and electrical stability, insolubility in liquids, and resistance to aging are three advantages of transducers made of_______________." Lithium sulfate Barium titanate Quartz Rochelle salts Quartz
The amount of energy reflected from a discontinuity is dependent on ______________., The discontinuity size The orientation The type All of the above All of the above"
"If UT wave is transmitted thru interface- first mtl higher acoustic impedance but same velocity as second mtl, refraction angle will be _____________.", Greater than Less than same as the angle of incidence Beyond the critical angle, The same as the angle of incidence
Which of the following frequencies would probably result in the greatest ultrasonic attenuation losses?, 1 MHz 2.25 MHz 10.0 MHz 25.0 MHz 25.0 MHz
The product of the sound velocity and the density of a material is known as the _______________., MTL Refraction value MTL Acoustic impedance MTL Elastic constant Poisson’s ratio of the material MTL Acoustic impedance
The amplifier range over which the unsaturated signal response increases in amplitude in proportion to the discontinuity surface area is the ____________., Sensitivity range Selectivity range Vertical linearity range Horizontal linearity range Vertical linearity range
When inspecting a rolled or forged surface with a thin scale that I generally tightly adhering to the part, before testing the part ______________." Clean the surface of loose scale Have all scale removed Rough machine the surface Clean the surface of loose scale
The angle of reflection of an ultrasonic beam at an aluminum-water interface is ____________., 0.256 times the angle of incidence Approximately ½ the angle of incidence Equal to the angle of incidence Equal to the angle of incidence
"What kind of waves travel at a velocity slightly less than shear waves and their mode of propagation is both longitudinal and transverse with respect to the surface?, Rayleigh waves Transverse waves Rayleigh waves
Which ultrasonic test frequency would probably provide the best penetration in a 30 cm (12 in) thick specimen of coarse-grained steel?, 1 MHz 2.25 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 1 MHz
One of the most common applications of UT tests using shear waves is for the ___________.," Finding of disc in welds, tube, and pipe Finding of elastic prop of metals Find of laminar disc in heavy plate Find thickness of plate Detection of discontinuities in welds, tube, and pipe
The best UT method for finding disc oriented along the fusion zone in a welded plate is __________.", An angle beam surface wave contact method A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave An immersion test with surface waves An angle beam method using shear waves
A UT instrument that displays pulses of the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function of time or depth of metal is said to contain ______________., A continuous wave display An A-scan presentation A B-scan presentation A C-scan presentation An A-scan presentation
"At a water-steel interface the angle of incidence in water is 7 degrees. The principal mode of vibration that exists in the steel is ___________., Longitudinal Shear Both A and B Surface Longitudinal
In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that can exist is _____________." Longitudinal Shear Both A and B Longitudinal"
In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an instrument in a given period of time is known as the ____________."", Pulse length of the instrument Pulse recovery time Frequency Pulse repetition rate
"In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that coordinates the action and timing of other components is called a ________.", Display unit Receiver Marker circuit or range marker circuit Synchronizer, clock, or timer Synchronizer, clock, or timer
"In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces the voltage that activates the transducer is called _____________."", An amplifier A receiver A pulser
In basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces the time base line is called a _________."", Sweep circuit A receiver Sweep circuit
In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure distance is called a ________."", Sweep circuit Marker circuit Marker circuit
"Most basic pulse echo ultrasonic instruments use ____________., Automatic read-out equipment An A-scan presentation A B-scan presentation An A-scan presentation
"The instrument displays a plan view of the part outline and defects when using _____________., Automatic read-out equipment An A-scan presentation A B-scan presentation A C-scan presentation
The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called __________., The normal angles of incidence The critical angles The angles of maximum reflection None of the above The critical angles
"Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to the direction of propagation are called _____________., Longitudinal waves Shear waves Lamb waves Rayleigh waves Longitudinal waves
"The mode of vibration that is quickly damped out when testing by the immersion method is ______________., Longitudinal waves Shear waves Transverse waves Surface waves Surface waves"
The motion of particles in a shear wave is ______________., Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic beam Transverse to the direction of the beam propagation Limited to the material surface & elliptical in motion Polarized Transverse to the direction of the beam propagation
"An ultrasonic longitudinal wave travels in aluminum with a velocity of 635,000 cm/s and has a frequency of 1 MHz. The wavelength of this ultrasonic wave is ____________.",. 6..35 mm (0.25 in) 78 mm (3.1 in) 1.9 m (6.35 ft) 6..35 mm (0.25 in)
"The refraction angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves passing from water into a metallic material at angles other than normal to the interface is primarily a function of _________., The impedance ratio (r=Z The relative velocities of sound in water and metal
"""As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam divergence of a given diameter crystal ___________."", Decreases Remains unchanged Increases Decreases"
Which is not an advantage of Lucite contact ultrasonic transducers ? Most crystal wear is eliminated Adaption to curved surfaces is permitted Sensitivity is increased Ultrasound is allowed to enter a part’s surface at oblique angles Sensitivity is increased
A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into steel at an angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case, the refracted angle of the transverse wave is _________."" Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave E Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave
The velocity of sound is the lowest in _____________., Air Water Aluminum Plastic Air
In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in ____________."", Longitudinal waves Shear waves Longitudinal waves"
The acoustic impedance ______________. Used to calculate the angle of reflection The product of the density of the material and the velocity of sound in the material Found by Snell’s law Used to determine resonance values The product of the density of the material and the velocity of sound in the material
Thin sheet may be examined with UT wave normal to surface by observing ____________. The amplitude of front surface reflection The multiple reflection pattern All front surface reflections None of the above The multiple reflection pattern
A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are shown by geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy by lines and/or arrows is called a _______. Schematic diagram Blueprint Block diagram None of the above Block diagram
A hole produced during the solidification of metal due to escaping gases is called ____________. A burst A cold shut Flaking A blow hole A blow hole
"A disc that occurs during Molten metal casting caused by splashing, surging, interrupted pouring, or meeting of two streams of metal coming from different directions is called _______." A burst A cold shut Flaking A blow hole A cold shut
The ratio between wave speed in one material and wave speed in a second material is called ________. acoustic impedance of interface Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio The index of refraction The index of refraction
The expansion and contraction of a magnetic material under the influence of a changing magnetic field is referred to as __________. Piezoelectricity Refraction Magnetostriction Rarefaction Magnetostriction
The ratio of stress to strain in a material with the elastic limit is called ________. Young’s modulus The modulus of elasticity Both A and B The index of refraction Young’s modulus The modulus of elasticity
"A point, line, or surface of a vibrating body marked by absolute or relative freedom from vibratory motion is referred to as __________." A node An antinode Rarefaction Compression A node
The factor that determines the amount of reflection at the interface of two dissimilar materials is _________. The index of rarefaction The frequency of the ultrasonic wave Young’s modulus The acoustic impedance The acoustic impedance
A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to the Z and Y axes and perpendicular to the X axis is called _________. A Y-cut crystal The frequency of the ultrasonic wave Young’s modulus The acoustic impedance The acoustic impedance
The equation describing wavelength in terms of velocity and frequency is _________. Wavelength = V X F Wavelength = Z (frequency X velocity) Wavelength = V ÷ F Wavelength = F ÷ V Wavelength = F ÷ V
When an ultrasonic beam reaches the interface of two dissimilar materials it is _____________. Reflected Mode converted All of the above All of the above
"Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound transmitter is ___________.", BT -> LS Lithium sulfate Quartz Barium titanate Silver oxide Barium titanate
"Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound receiver is", BT -> LS Lithium sulfate Quartz Barium titanate Silver oxide Lithium sulfate "
Produce Shear waves when using UT immersion method is ______., By sending long wave in ⊥ to its front surface By using two crystals at diff frequencies By using a Y-cut quartz crystal By angulating the search tube to the proper angle, By angulating the search tube to the proper angle,
The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is _____________., Directly proportional to velocity & frequency Directly proportional to velocity & inversely proportional to frequency Inversely propo Directly proportional to velocity & inversely proportional to frequency
Fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is a function of ____________., applied voltage pulse length Pulse Amplifier characteristics The thickness of the crystal None of the above The thickness of the crystal
"Acoustic velocities of materials are primarily due to the material’s _________________. Density Elasticity Density + Elasticity
Inspection of castings is often impractical because of ________________. Extremely small grain structure Coarse grain structure Uniform flow lines Uniform velocity of sound Coarse grain structure
"Lamb waves may be used to inspect ___________________. Forgings Bar stock Ingots Thin sheet Thin sheet"
The formula used to determine the angle of beam divergence of a quartz crystal is _______________. Sin Ɵ = dia ½ X W Sin Ɵ dia = F X W Sin Ɵ = F X W Sin Ɵ/2 = 1.22 X W/dia Sin Ɵ/2 = 1.22 X W/dia
"The resolving power of a transducer is directly proportional to __________. Diameter Bandwidth Pulse repetition Bandwidth
"Acoustic lens elements with which of the following permit focusing the sound energy to enter cylindrical surfaces normally or along a line focus? Cylindrical curvatures Spherical lens curvatures Convex shapes Cylindrical curvatures"
In the basic pulse echo instrument, the synchronizer, clock, or timer circuit determines the"" Pulse length Gain Pulse repetition rate Pulse repetition rate
Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and scattering are four different mechanisms which lead to ______."" Attenuation Refraction Beam spreading Attenuation"
"Because the velocity of sound in aluminum is approximately 245,000 in/s for sound to travel through 25 mm (1 in) of aluminum, it takes _________." 1/8 s 4 µs 4 ms ¼ X 104 s 4 µs
Reflection indications from a weld area being inspected by the angle beam technique may represent __________. Porosity Cracks Weld bead All of the above All of the above
In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal line formed by the uniform and repeated movement of an electron beam across the fluorescent screen of a cathode ray tube is called _________."" A square wave pattern A sweep line A marker pattern N A sweep line"
"The greatest amount of attenuation losses take place __________. 1 MHz 2.25 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 10 MHz"
"Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or no reflection from the curve are called _________. Transverse waves Surface waves Shear waves Longitudinal waves Surface waves"
To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a ________."" Transducer with a smaller crystal Scrubber Grid map Crystal collimator Transducer with a smaller crystal"
As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases, the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials _________."" Decreases 2.25 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz Decreases"
"Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or no reflection from the curve are called ___________-. Transverse waves Surface waves Shear waves Longitudinal waves Surface waves"
To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a __________."" Transducer with a smaller crystal Scrubber Grid map Crystal collimato Transducer with a smaller crystal"
As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases, the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials ____________."" Decreases Increases Is not changed May increase or decrease Decreases
"Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin materials because of _________-. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound Incompatible wavelengths Poor near-surface resolution
When using tow separate transducers (one a transmitter, the other a receiver), the most efficient combinations would be a ____________."" Quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver BT transmitter and a LS receiver BT transmitter and a LS receiver"
In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to which the search cable and the transducer are attached is called a ________."" Crystal collimator Scrubber Jet-stream unit Search tube or scanning tube Search tube or scanning tube"
In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend to b oriented _________."", Randomly In the direction of grain flow In the direction of grain flow"
In immersion testing, irrelevant or false indications caused by contoured surfaces are likely to result in a ________."", Broad-based indication Peaked indication Broad-based indication
In contact testing, defects near the entry surface cannot always be detected because of ________."", The far-field effect Attenuation The dead zone"
In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected is smaller than the diameter of the transducer, what can be used to confine the sound beam to the proper range of angles?"", A scrubber A collimator A collimator"
"The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined by _______., The frequency of the transducer Viscous drag problems The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument"
The property of certain materials to transform electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa is called ___________., Mode conversion Piezoelectric effect Refraction Impedance matching Piezoelectric effect
Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately 1/25 of the original power at a depth of __________., 25 mm (1 in) 102 mm (4 in) 1 wavelength Impedance matching 1 wavelength
Incr pulse length to activate the ducer will _____., Incr UT strength but decr scope resolving power Incr scope resolving power Not affect the test Decr pene of sound wave Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the resolving power of the instrument
A disc with a concave surface will ___________., Diffuse sound energy thru the part Focus reflected beam to point found by disc Focus sound at point from curvature of the disc Cause mode reinforcement of ultrasonic wave None of these
"Rayleigh waves __________. Are generated at the first critical angle Are generated at the second critical angle Are generated at the second critical angle
"Angle beam testing of plate will often miss __________., Cracks that are perpendicular to the sound wave Inclusions that are randomly oriented Lamination's that are parallel to the front surface
"Calculate skip distance from one formula T=thick, ? = refracted sound and V = sound V) ______." S = (2 X t)/ tan ? S = 2 X t X sin ? S = 2 X t X tan ? S = 2 X V X sin ? None of the above S = 2 X t X tan ?
The principal application of ultrasonic techniques consists of ________-., Flaw detection Thickness measurements Find elastic moduli all of these, all of these all of these
Attenuation is the loss of the ultrasonic wave energy during the course of propagation in the material due to __________., Reflection and refraction Dispersion and deffraction absorption and scattering composition and shape all of above abs absorption and scattering
In immersion UT, waves are generated by angle transducer beyond the FCA. What is direction of mtl particle motion? Same as the wave path ⊥ to material surface, parallel to wave path ⊥ to wave path only surface waves exist beyond FCA ⊥ to the direction of wave propagation
Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly dampened out when testing by the immersion method? Longitudinal waves shear waves transverse waves surface waves, surface waves surface waves
Created by: urbergpm9276