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Chapter 23 Vocab BIO

Chapter 23 pg 412 - 429, all bold words!

QuestionAnswer
Plants Multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes who evolved to land
Charophytes Freshwater green algae
Cuticle Waxy covering that protects all exposed surfaces from drying out
Stomata Tiny openings found on the underside of leaves. Allows gas exchange and for the release of water vapor
Tracheids Specialized cells with proteins that resist gravity by transporting water and minerals upwards
Alternation of generations The two alternating forms of a plant in its life cycle
Sporophyte Diploid, spore-producing generation
Gametophyte Haploid, gamete-producing generation
Sporangium Produced by the sporophyte, place where haploid spores are produced via meiosis.
Spore Reproductive cell that develops into new organisms without needing to fuse with other cells
Antheridia Male gametangia that produce sperm
Archegonia Female gametangia that produce eggs
Bryophytes Non-vascular plants that originally colonized land
Vascular Tissue Specialized for the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plot
Nonvascular plants Plants that are low lying and weaker, like Bryophytes
Liverworts The thallose and leafy kind, with the first having a flattened thallus while the latter resembles most moss
Rhizoids Hair-like extensions of the thallus that go into the soil
Hornwort Gametophyte that grows a thin rib-like thallus. Mostly live on trees and photosynthesize. Has a symbiotic relationship with cynobacteria that can fix nitrogen from the air
Mosses Largest group of nonvascular plants with more than 15,000 species. Composed of peat, granite, and true moss groups
Vascular Plants Have roots that absorb water from soil and have tissues like xylem and phloem, which helps them grow very large and tall
Xylem Transports water from the stem to the leaves
Phloem Conducting tissue that transports nutrients
Lignin Contained in the cell walls of xylem which strengthens it
Seedless vascular plants Plants that mainly use wind or some other transport besides seeds to reproduce
Lycophytes Have stems, leaves, and roots
Microphylls Leaves that only have one strand of tissue
Strobili Cone-shaped structure that births sporangia, where meiosis takes place and spores are produced
Rhizome Underground stem where roots branch from
Homosporous Vascular plants that only produce spores that grow into one type of gametophyte
Heterosporous Vascular plants that produce two types of spores, called micro and megaspores
Microspores Grow into male gametophytes
Megaspores Grow into female gametophytes
Pteridophytes Broad term used to describe a group of seedless vascular plants; including ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns
Megaphylls Broad leaves with several strands of vascular tissue
Horsetails Consist of one genus, Equisetum, and approximately 25 species of distinct seedless vascular plants. Mostly inhabit wet and marshy environments
Whisk ferns Present in Psilotum and Tmesipteris, resembling whisk brooms and have megaphyll appendages
Ferns Mostly in tropical regions. Ferns have fronds which house sori.
Fronds Megaphylls on ferns
Sori Sporangia clusters found on the undersides of fronds. Sori is shielded by thin, protective structures named indusia.
Seed plants Vascular plants that use seeds during the dispersal stage of their life cycle
Seeds Contain a sporophyte embryo and stored food within a protective coat
Pollen grains Microspores that become male gametophytes
Pollination occurs when a pollen grain is brought into contact with the female gametophyte by wind or a pollinator
Pollen tube Where sperm move toward the female gametophyte
Ovule Megaspore within the female gametophyte which becomes a seed following fertilization
Gymnosperms Mostly cone-bearing seed plants where ovules are not completely enclosed by sporophyte tissue at the time of pollination
Angiosperms Flowering plants where the ovules are completely enclosed within diploid sporophyte tissue, which becomes a fruit
Conifers Consisting of about 630 species of trees (many evergreen), conifers bear cones
Cones Seeds produced by conifers
Monoecious Conifers that carry both a male and female reproductive structure
Cycads Distinctive gymnosperms that are native to (sub)tropical forests.
Ginkgoes represented by only one species of tree today named the Ginkgo biloba. Dioecious in nature
Dioecious Present in ginkgoes, which means that a single plant produces either male or female reproductive structures, but not both
Gnetophytes Diverse in appearance, yet similar in the xylem structure and strobili, and the fact that none have archegonia. Some produce nectar.
Angiosperms Flowering plants, extremely successful!
Monocotyledons One of the classes of plants. Contain about 65,000 species
Monocots Shortened version of Monocotyledons
Eudicotyledones One of the classes of plants. Contain about 175,000 species.
Eudicots Shortened version of Eudicotyledones, means ‘true dicot’
Cotyledons The ‘seed leaves’ containing the nutrients that nourish the plant embryo. If a seed has one, it’s a monocot. Two and it’s a eudicot.
Flowers Contain sepals, petals, stamens, carpel, and the ovary.
Sepals collectively called the calyx; protects the flower bud before opening.
Petals collectively called the corolla, quite diverse in size, shape, and color. Used to attract pollinator
Stamens Each stamen has a filament that holds up a second structure called the anther. The filament is the stalk while the anther resembles a saclike container.
Carpel Very center of the flower which is vaselike with three major regions: the stigma, and enlarged, sticky knob; the style, a slender stank; and the ovary.
Ovary An enlarged base that encloses one or more ovules.
Double fertilization Process flowering plants go through: one sperm unites with an egg, forming a diploid zygote, and the other unites with polar nuclei, forming a triploid endosperm nucleus
Fruit Derived from an ovary and may be an accessory part of the flower.
Created by: CommanderJonno