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Plant Diversity I

Chapter 29

homosporous they have one type of sporophyll bearing one type of sporangium that produces one type of spore, which typically develops into bisexual gametophyte.
heterosporous two types of sporophylls:megasporophylls and microsporophylls
megaspores spores that develop into female gametophytes
microspores smaller spores that develop into male gametophytes
strobili groups of sporophylls form cone-like structures
sori clusters of sporangia
sporophylls modified leaves that bear sporangia
megaphylls leaves with a highly branched vascular system
microphylls small, often spine shaped leaves supported by a single strand of vascular tissue
leaves structures that serve as the primary photosynthetic organ of vascular plants
roots organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil
phloem tissue that has cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
lignin water-conducting cells in vascular plants are lignified (cell walls are strengthened)
tracheids tube shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from the roots
Xylem conducts most of the water and minerals
peat material
peristone the upper part of the capsule features a ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures
capsule produces spores by meiosis
seta stalk
foot absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte
rhizoids long,tubular single cells or filaments of cells
gametophore apical meristem that generates a gamete producing structure
protonema germinating moss spores produce a mass green, branched, one-cell thick filaments
angiosperms huge clade consisting of all flowering plants
gymnosperms seeds are not enclosed in chambers
seed embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat
seedless vascular plants clades lack seeds
monilophytes ferns and their relatives
lycophytes club mosses and their relatives
bryophytes nonvascular plants
vascular plants most present-day plants have a complex vascular tissue system
vascular tissue cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
stomata specialized pores
cuticle consists of wax and other polymers
apical meristems regions at growing tips of the plant body where one or more cells divide repeatedly
antheridia male gametangia
archegonia female gametangia
gametangia another feature distinguishing early plants from their algal ancestors was the production of gametes within multi-cellular organs
sporocytes diploid cells
sporangia sporophyte has multicellular organs
embryophytes multicellular, dependent embryo of plants is such a significant derived trait
spores reproductive cells that can develop into a new haploid organism without fusing with another cell
sporophyte multicellular diploid
gametophyte production by mitosis of haploid gametes-eggs and sperm that fuse during fertilization, forming diploid zygotes
alternation of generations each generation gives rise to the other
sporopollenin a durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out
What traits do the charophytes share with plants? -rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins -structure of flagellated sperm -formation of phragmoplast
charophyte environment -inhabit shallow waters around the edges of ponds and lakes, where they are subject to occasional drying
Three Possible plant kingdoms -viridiplantae -streptophyta -plantae
What do charophyte algae lack? -alternation of generations -multicellular, dependent embryos -walled spores produced in sporangia -multicellular gametangia -apical meristems
two generations of distinct multicellular organisms gametophytes and sporophytes
Which of the following statements about algae and plants is true? Plants have waxy , waterproof cuticle, and algae do not
Which of the following homologies is/are shared by land plants and their closest living algal relatives?
Created by: savepeople