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Geography 1

TermDefinition
Erosion Is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location.
Deposition Is the process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform. Wind, ice and water transport previously weathered surface material, causing the the fluid to lose energy and deposit, which builds up layers of sediment.
Active When an action occurs.
Passive Means to allow an action to happen with no action forced back.
Weathering The physical or chemical breakdown of rocks into smaller bits that do not undergo transportation from their original position.
Exfoliation As rocks heat they expand when rocks cool down they contract. This causes the rock to weaken over time and the top layer to crack, peel off in layers due to temperature change.
Freeze Thaw Action When water in an eroded crack freezes it expands putting pressure on the rock. When the ice melts the water flows down deeper this pressure causes longer cracks to form and eventually rock breaks off.
Organic Action Small roots from plants can force their way into cracks. As the plant grows, the roots get larger an put pressure on the rock. eventually small pieces of rock may break off.
Weak Acid Is effective in dissolving limestone, rainwater + carbon dioxide
Oxidation Has a rusty appearance, water + oxygen + iron
Organic Acid Can be found in rivers, swamps and forests, water + decayinging vegetation
Lithosphere Is sometimes called the geosphere, refers to all of the rocks of the earth. It includes the planet's mantle and crust, the two outermost layers. The boulders, the sand and the lava.
Hydrosphere Is composed of all of the water on or near the planet's surface. This includes oceans, rivers, and lakes, as well as underground aquifers and the moisture in the atmosphere.
Biosphere Is composed of all living organisms: plants, animals and one-celled organisms alike.
Atmosphere Is the body of gasses that surrounds our planet, held in place by earth's gravity.
Subjective Making a decision based on personal preference, values
Objective Making decisions based on facts, statistics or evidence
Aesthetic Value Value of a land based on its appearance.
Economic Value Assessed value of an asset based on its ability to generate income.
Emotional Value The value gain from someone's feelings or emotional states when adopting and using a service.
Spiritual Value Value relating to people's thoughts and beliefs, rather than to their bodies and physical surroundings.
Geomorphology Is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Landscape Is the visible features of an area of land
Landform Is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth
Place Parts of the world that can be described by location, boundaries and features.
Sustainability The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
Environment The product of natural and human processes. It's significant to human life, raw materials and food, resources recycling and habitat.
Interconnection The way that people and geographic phenomena (things that bring about change) are connected. They can be simple, complex, reciprocal or interdependent. Leads to holistic thinking.
Change Alteration to the natural or built environment.
Scale Different levels to investigate. Can be used to elevate or diminish the significance of an issue.
Space
Transform Conservative Boundary Neither creating or destroying the plate. Plates move in the same direction at different speeds. when the grinding pressure is released an earthquake can form.
Convergent Collision Boundary Is constructive creating landforms. This is when two continental plates move towards each other with a similiar density. This results in plates colliding creating fold mountains and destructive earthquakes.
Convergent Subduction Boundary Is when an oceanic and a continental plate move towards each other. The denser oceanic plate gives way and subducts below the less dense continental plate, which becomes the crust due to the oceanic plate melting as it sinks deep into hot liquid mantle.
Subduction Is caused by a continental crust that converges with an oceanic crust. It’s the pressure point for two plates sandwiched on top of each other. It forms trenches, volcanoes, mountains and earthquakes in the ocean and on land.
Divergent Constructive Boundary Is the movement of plates splitting away from each other creating splits in the earth called ridges. Magma rises to form new crusts causing volcanoes and eruptions.
Plate Margin The boundary of one of the plates that form the lithosphere and together cover the surface of the Earth. Plate margins are characterized with tectonic and topographic features: oceanic ridges, Benioff zones, young fold mountains and transform faults.
Magnitude Scale Amount of energy released.
Erupting Having an eruption.
Dormant Not erupting but expected to erupt again.
Extinct Have not had an eruption for at least ten thousand years and not expected to again.
Thin magma Is rarely a threat because it flows easily but moves slowly.
Thick or vicious magma Is when the pressure builds in magma and it is ready to explode.
Hot Spot Is a location where hot molten magma from deep within the earth rises through a weakness in the crust to reach the surface.
Hazard Is an event most often an earthquake or volcano that poses a threat to humans and or their possessions.
Disaster Is a widespread hazard that causes damage to humans and possessions. A disaster can impact in many ways including social, economic and environmental.
Social Damage When people loose loved ones and have limited access to community health services like doctors, clean water or a safe place.
Economic Damage Is the loss of past and future medical expenses, loss of past and future earnings, loss of use of property, costs of repair or replacement, the economic value of domestic services, and loss of employment or business opportunities.
Environmental Damage Is the damage that may include the collapse of infrastructure, property damage, pollution and loss of habitat.
Created by: gunthel