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ONCOLOGY 1400

ONCOLOGY 1400 - Oncology part 3 Treatment-Alison Miles

QuestionAnswer
Surgery when tumor is confined and has not invaded surrounding tissues; surgery is primary treatment
Debulking when entire tumor can not be removed, as much as possible is removed
Local Excision tumor and a small amount of healthy tissues are removed
Wide or Radical Excision removes tumor, lymph nodes and involved adjacent structures and surrounding tissue that pose a risk for metastasis
Salvage Surgery done with local recurrence of CA; more extensive than previous surgery
Prophylactic client is at high risk for developing cancer; usually done for breast or reproductive cancers
Palliative relieve uncomfortable symptoms or prolong life; NOT A CURE
Radiation Therapy high-energy ionizing radiation used to destroy cancer cells by disrupting cell function and division/alteration of DNA molecules; cell death occurs immediately
Goal of Radiation Therapy to destroy malignant cells without permanently damaging healthy tissue
External Radiation MARKED W/MARKER OR TATTOO; DO NOT USE LOTIONS TO RADIATION AREA--skin may burn; malignant cells are more sensitive to radiation; cell death; damage to cell's DNA; daily treatments over several weeks
Internal Radiation POSE THREAT TO OTHERS; Brachytherapy; radioactive source that is implanted or placed on tumor implanted inside patient's body
Sealed source inserted in body in a sealed container directly into tumor; can be held in place with an applicator
Precautions of Internal Radiation patients/Sealed Source private room; preferably LEAD LINED; sign on door; no children/pregnant women; limit time in room to 30 mins PER SHIFT; lead aprons, monitoring devises; monitor for accidental dislodged sources
Unsealed Sources Additional: wear gloves; body fluids require special considerations--radiation excreted through urine, saliva, sweat and feces; use separate eating utensils; wash clothes seperately; drink plenty fluids to flush system
Side effects of Radiation Bone marrow suppression/myelosuppression (anemia-RBC), (leukopenia-WBC), (thrombocytopenia-platelets); alopecia, anorexia, altered taste, mouth sores, dry mouth, erythema to area, harm to fetus, sterility, impotence
Stomatitis mouth sores
Chemotherapy Can be used to cure cancer, prevention of metastasis, slow growth of tumor, destroy tumor cells or relieve symptoms
True T/F: Chemo-Agents can be cell cycle specific or cell cycle-non specific drugs
True T/F: Chemo can be given orally, IV, IM, intraperitoneally, intra-arterially, intrapleurally, topically, intrathecally or directly into a cavity
Cytoxic Alkylating drugs and mitotic inhibitors interfere with the process of cell division
True T/F: Antineoplastic antibiotics and antimetabolites interfere with DNA and RNA
Chemotherapy side effects same as radiation; also including possible toxic effects on lungs, heart, nerve tissue, kidneys and bladder; tissue necrosis
Bone Marrow Transplantation peripheral blood stem cell transplant; collected by apheresis (process of separating blood into components for later reinfusion)
3 Types of Bone Marrow Transplantation Autologous (self), Allogeneic (compatible donor), and Syngeneic (identical twin)
Immunotherapy biologic response modifiers stimulate body's natural immune system to restrict & destroy cancer cells; manipulates natural immune response by restoring, stimulating or augmenting natural defenses
Types of Immunotherapy Nonspecific and Monoclonal antibody
Nonspecific Immunotherapy antigen injected into client to stimulate immune response to destroy malignant cells
Monoclonal Antibody tumor cells injected into mice to form antibodies; antibodies removed from spleen and cultured w/more cancer cells to form more antibodies and reinjected into patient to destroy tumor cells (after purification)
Cytokines substances that immune system cells produce to enhance immune system
4 Types of Cytokines Interferons, Interleukins, Tumor necrosis factor, Hematopoietic growth factors (colony stimulating factors)
Gene Therapy replaces altered genes w/correct genes, inhibiting defective genes; rids body of cells no longer needed or defective
Created by: txladybug70