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A&P II

Blood

QuestionAnswer
What is Blood Connective tissue Liquid ECM
3 types of Blood cells Formed Elements such as Red blood cells (RBCs) White blood cells (WBCs) Platelets (cell fragments)
What is Blood Plasma and what is it made of Clear, straw-colored fluid H2O, Electrolytes, Gases, Amino acids, Proteins, CHOs, Lipids, Vitamins, Hormones, Cellular waste products
The origin of Blood Cells Hematopoiesis is the formation of red blood cells. Blood cells originate in the red bone marrow from hematopoetic stem cells, also known as hemocytoblast.
Stem cells Can divide to give rise to more differentiated cells and also stem cells.
Hematopoietic Growth Factors As hematopoietic stem cells divide, the new cells, myeloid and lymphoid stem cells, respond to different secreted growth factors called Hematopoietic Growth Factors, that turn on some genes and turn off others.
What are Myeloid stem cells RBCs, WBCs and Platelets also know as Thrombocytes. Thrombopoietin induces Megakaryoctye proliferation
What are Lymphoid stem cells T-cells , B-cells. Cells of the Immune system
What are the characteristics of Red Blood Cells RBC are called Erythrocytes. They have a Biconcave Discs, thin near center and thicker around rims. Shape is an adaptation for the transportation of gases, to increase surface area for functional capacity such as diffusion of gases.
What are the characteristics of Red Blood Cells cont Increase Flexibility for ease of movement through capillaries Lack Nuclei (Anuclear) and Mitochondria
Hemoglobin (Hgb) Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood Amount of Hgb (expressed in grams) present in a specified volume of blood
Deoxyhemoglobin When oxygen is release from hemoglobin; the color is darker , may appear bluish.
Carbaminohemoglobin Bonded carbon with hemoglobin
Oxyhemoglobin When hemoglobin combines with oxygen; the color is bright red.
RBC Count Total Number of RBCs / Cubic Milimeter or /Microliter of blood
Hematocrit (Hct) % RBCs in specified volume of blood
Erythropoiesis Formation of RBCs
Red Blood Cell Production and Its Control A Negative Feedback Mechanism: Using the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) controls the rate of RBC formation. In response to prolong oxygen deficiency, EPO is released from the kidneys and to a lesser extent from the liver. In a fetus, the liver produce EPO
Red Blood Cell Production and Its Control cont. When there is a decrease availability of oxygen, the amount of oxygen delivered to the tissues initially decreases. The drop in oxygen triggers release of EPO, which travels via the blood to the red bone marrow and increase erythrocyte production.
Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production Vitamin B12 (Seafood, beef, venison, lamb, yogurt) Absorption requires production of Intrinsic Factor by Parietal cells of Stomach.
Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production cont. Folic Acid (Folate, Vitamin B9) (Green leafy vegetables, fruit) Both: DNA synthesis and repair Cell growth and division.
Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production cont. Iron -Hemoglobin synthesis, Binding site of O2 Recycled after RBC hemolysis
Abnormal Red Blood Cells Anemia: RBC deficiency or Insufficient Hgb. Reduction of O2-carrying capacity of blood
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 1 With age, RBC becomes more fragile, and may be damaged by passing through capillaries. Damaged or worn RBCs rupture as they pass through the spleen or liver.
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 2 In these organs, macrophages phagocytize and destroy damaged RBCs
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 3 Hemoglobin molecules that are released from the RBC, break into Heme and globin.
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 4 Heme is decomposed into iron and biliverdin. Iron is made available
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 5 Iron is made available for reuse in the synthesis of new hemoglobin or stored in the liver as ferritin
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 6 Some biliverdin is converted into bilirubin.
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 7 Biliverdin and bilirubin are secreted in bile as bile pigments.
Destruction of Red Blood Cells step 8 The globin is broken down into amino acids metabolized by macrophages or released into the plasma.
Characteristics of WBC Leukocytes - Protect against disease Cytokines - Cellular messengers, mediate WBC production.
Two types of Leukocytes Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Types of Granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils
Types of Agranulocytes Lymphocytes and monocytes
Neutrophils Mature Neutrophils are Lobed nucleus, 2 to 5 segments and are Polymorphonuclear leukocyte. They are First to arrive at the site of infection. They have Phagocytic Defenses, mostly bacteria. They become elevated in bacterial infections
Eosinophils Bi-lobed nucleus Moderate allergic reactions Defend against parasitic worm infestations Elevated in parasitic worm infestations and allergic reactions
Basophils Bi-lobed nucleus Migrate to damaged tissues Inflammatory response releases Histamine To inhibit blood clotting it releases Heparin
Monocytes Largest Blood Cell. Mature into Macrophages or Dendritic cells, leaves the blood stream and enter the interstitial fluid. Phagocytose bacteria, dead cells, and other debris. Becomes elevated in chronic infections, autoimmune diseases.
Lymphocytes Large spherical nucleus surrounded by thin rim of cytoplasm. B cells and T cells involve in Adaptive, Specific Immunity. B cells = Humoral immunity and Antibody production T cells = Cell mediated immunity
There are 4 Functions of White Blood Cells. Function 1 Leukocytes can squeeze between the cells that form the walls of the smallest blood vessels. The movement is called Diapedesis, allows the WBC to leave the circulation
Functions 2 of White Blood Cells Once outside the blood, leukocytes move through interstitial spaces using a form of self - propulsion called ameboid motion.
Function 3 of White Blood Cells Cellular trauma leads to Cytokine release and Positive chemotaxis
Function 4 of White Blood Cells Leukocytic signaling to site of injury
White Blood Cell Counts Number of WBCs / Cubic Milimeter or /Microliter of blood Typically 5,000 – 10,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
Leukopenia Low WBC count below 5,000 AIDS
Leukocytosis High WBC count above 10,000 Leukemia
Differential WBC count Lists percentages of types of leukocytes
Another name for Blood Platelets Thrombocytes
Thrombopoietin Is a hormone produced primarily in liver (small amount in kidneys, bone marrow), it regulates platelet production. Promotes proliferation, maturation of Hemocytoblast, Myeloid stem cell, Megakaryoblast, Megakaryoctye
Nucleus of Thrombocytes Anuclear (lack nuclei)
How does thrombocytes help blood vessels They repair damage blood vessels. Adhesion to broken surfaces called a clotting cascade
What hormone does thrombocytes release Serotonin. Serotonin contracts smooth muscle in the blood vessel walls, reducing flow.
What is Blood Plasma Liquid portion of blood.
Composition of Blood Plasma H2O (92%) Plasma proteins Gases Nutrients Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances and Electrolytes
What does Blood Plasma transport Solutes (dissolved substances) and Gases.
What does Blood Plasma regulate Fluid and electrolyte balance pH maintenance
What are the most abundant solutes in plasma Plasma proteins: Albumins, Globulin and Fibinogen. They are Not metabolized as energy sources and used as Maintenance of Blood Pressure.
What are the plasma gases Oxygen and Carbon dioxide
What are the plasma nutrients Amino acids, Simple sugars, Nucleotides and Lipids
What are Plasma Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances Molecules containing nitrogen but are not Proteins for example: Urea, Amino acids, Uric Acid and Creatinine
Urea is product of protein catabolism
Amino Acid is a product of Protein catabolism
Uric Acid is a product of Nucleic acid catabolism
Creatinine is a product of Creatine metabolism
What are Plasma Electrolytes Ionized (Charged) particles in solution. They are Released as by-products of cellular metabolism
Example of Plasma Electrolytes Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+) Chloride (Cl-), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Phosphate (PO4-), Sulfate (SO4-)
Where is Plasma Electrolytes absorbed Absorbed from intestine
Steps to stop bleeding Blood vessel spasm, Platelet plug formation and Blood coagulation
Vascular Spasm Stimulus Direct stimulus to vessel walls or to pain receptors. Platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor
Vascular Spasm Effect Smooth muscle in vessel walls contracts reflexly; vasoconstriction helps maintain prolonged vascular spasm.
Platelet plug formation Stimulus Exposure of platelets to rough surfaces or to collagen of connective tissue
Platelet plug formation Effect Platelets adhere to rough surfaces and each other, forming a plug.
Blood Coagulation Stimulus Cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces activate factors that favor coagulation.
Blood Coagulation Effect Blood clot forms as a result of series of reactions, terminating in the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin
Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism: Positive feedback Mechanism The extrinsic clotting mechanism is triggered when blood contact damage blood vessels walls or tissue outside blood vessels. Such damage tissues release tissue thromboplastin (factor III), that is associated with disrupted cell membranes.
Step 1 of Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Elicited by interaction of blood with biochemicals released by damaged blood vessels or extravascular tissue
Step 2 of Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Biochemicals released from disrupted cell membranes trigger blood coagulation
Step 3 of Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Tissue thromboplastin (Factor III or 3) binds/activates Factor VII or 7, binds/activates Factor X or 10, binds/activates Factor V or 5
Step 4 of Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Factor IV or 4, a calcium ions, leads to Platelet production of Prothrombin Activator. Prothrombin (Factor II or 2, a Alpha globulin plasma protein) converted to Thrombin (Factor IIa or 2 a)
Step 5 of Extrinsic Clotting Mechanism Thrombin Binds to fragments Fibrinogen (Factor I). Fibrinogen re-forms into (thread-like) Fibrin and activates Factor VIII, which stabilizes, strengthens Fibrin thread.
Use of Prothrombin and Thrombin. Prothrombin Activator + Prothrombin = Thrombin Thrombin + Fibrinogen = Fibrin
Intrinsic Clotting Mechanism It begins without tissue damage. Activation of a substance called the Hageman factor (factor XII-12) initiates intrinsic clotting. This happens when blood is exposed to a foreign surface as collagen in connective tissue instead of intact blood vessels.
Fate of Blood Clots step 1 Following blood clot formation, platelet membrane extensions adhere to Fibrin and contract
Fate of Blood Clots step 2 Blood clot retracts and pulls the edges of a broken blood vessel closer together and Serum is released. Serum is plasma minus blood cells and clotting factors
Fate of Blood Clots step 3 Platelet-derived Growth Factor is released, this stimulates smooth muscle cells and Fibroblasts (fiber-producing cells) to repair damaged blood vessel walls
Clot Dissolution Plasminogen (plasma protein) absorbed by Fibrin threads. Damaged tissue cells release Plasminogen Activator, Converts Plasminogen to Plasmin which is the Enzyme that degrades fibrin threads.
Thrombus Abnormal blood clot
Embolus Blood clot moving through the blood vessels
Prevention of Coagulation 1 Blood Vessel Smooth endothelial lining of healthy blood vessels
Prevention of Coagulation: Prostacyclin Inhibits adherence of platelets through blood vessel wall
Prevention of Coagulation Fibrin threads Absorbs Thrombin
Prevention of Coagulation: Antithrombin in plasma Interferes with the action of thrombin
Prevention of Coagulation: Heparin from mast cells and basophils Interfers with the formation of prothrombin activator
Antigens Proteins expressed on cell surface that induce B cell antibody production
What are Antibodies Immnuglobulins. Proteins that bind specific antigens.
Agglutination Clumping of red blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and an antigen
ABO Blood Group Based on presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes
Antigen and Antibody for Blood Type A Antigen - A Antibody is anti-B
Antigen and Antibody for Blood Type B Antigen B Antibody is anti-A
Antigen and Antibody for Blood Type A B Antigen A and B Antibody Neither anti-A nor anti-B
Antigen and Antibody for Blood Type O Antigen Neither A nor B Antibody both anti-A and anti-B
Agglutination Clumping Contact of blood cells with non-compatible antibodies
Which blood type is the universal donor Type O
Which blood type is the universal recipient A B positive
Rh Blood Group The Rh blood group was named after the rhesus monkey in which it was first studied. In humans, this group includes several Rh antigens (factors). The most prevalent is antigen D
If antigen D or Rh antigens are present in red blood cell membranes. They are Rh positive
If red blood cells do not have Rh antigens. They are Rh negative
Rh and First Pregnancy First pregnancy there is no reaction to mixing of maternal / fetal blood across Placental membrane
Rh and Pregnancy Exposure of Rh negative maternal blood to Rh positive blood of fetus leads to Maternal production of anti-Rh antibodies (Hemolysis)
Rhogam Is an anti-Rh antibodies by injection. Binds to any Rh positive fetal cells that might enter maternal blood supply
Rh and Pregnancy issues Erythroblastosis fetalis / Hemolytic Disease of Newborn – Abnormal circulating Erythroblasts or Hydrops fetalis - Abnormal accumulation of fluid in 2 or more fetal compartments (Ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, interstitial spaces)
Created by: bonitasoul