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Biology Chapter 5

Chapter 5 vocabulary 3

Exocytosis Transports macromolecules out of a cell via vesicle formation and often results in secretion.
Transport vesicles Membranous sac that enclose the molecules and keep them separate from cytoplasm.
Vesicle formation Take macromolecules that are to large to be moved by transport proteins, in and out of a cell.
Transport proteins Are involved in the passage of molecules and ions through the membrane. They often combine with a substance and help it move across the membrane, with an input of energy.
Pumps Proteins involved in active transport are often called pumps. Proteins use energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient.
Sodium-potassium pump Carrier protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into animal cells. Very important in nerve and muscle cells.
Active transport Requires metabolic energy (ATP) and moves substances across a membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. In many cases, a transport protein acts as a pump that causes a substance to move against its concentration gradient.
Bulk transport Requires vesicle formation and metabolic energy It occurs independently of concentration gradients.
Endocytosis Transports macromolecules into a cell via vesicle formation.
Receptor-mediated endoctytosis Makes use of receptor proteins in the plasma membrane, in the coated pit.
Pinocytosis Occurs when vesicles form around a liquid or around very small particles. Examples: white blood cells, cells that line the kidney tubules, and the intestinal wall and plant root cells.
Phagocytosis If endocytosis material taken in is large, such as food particle or another cell, the process is called phagocytosis. It is common in single-celled organisms, such as amoebas. Also occurs in humans.
Amoebas A single-celled animal that catches food and moves about by extending finger like projections of protoplasm. Amoebas are either free-living in damp environments or parasitic.
Protoplasm The colorless material comprising the living part of a cell, including the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles.
Created by: jwatts1
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