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Exam 1 for Bio 140B

Population group of individuals in a single species that interact in space and time
What are the two observations? -Individuals in a population vary in their heritable characteristics -Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support
What are the two inferences? -Individuals that are well suited to their environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals - Over time, favorable traits accumulate in the population
Lamarck(species can change) -advocate of evolution -came up with Inheritance of Acquired characteristics -thought Earth was very young when bible was written
Hutton (gradual geological change) -father of geology -looked at everyday observable processes of erosion -said Earth was very old! This shook foundations of society
Linnaeus (classification) - major father of Biology -travel ships to bring naturalists -1st to organize species -Species are adapted to their environment
Hutton/Lyoll -geologist -observable processes + time make huge changes
Malthus (population limits) -sociologist -too many people, not enough resources -Competition for resources
Cuvier (fossils, extinction) -french anatomist -extinction happens
Evolution based on the interactions between populations and their environment
Population is also known as ___ group
Over production organisms produce more offspring than can survive
Limited Resources there usually isn't enough to go around
Evolution via Natural Selection by Observations - Over Production - Limited Resources - Variation -Inheritance of Variation
Variation individuals vary extensively (phenotype)
Inheritance of Variation Much of this morphological variation is inherited (genotype)
Struggle for existence production of more individuals than can be supported leads to competition for resources
Evolution via Natural Selection by Inferences - struggle for existence -survival of the best adapted -accumulation of adaptations
survival of the best adapted individuals with traits that give them an advantage in the struggle for limited resources will survive. These individuals are more likely to leave offspring than individuals that are less fit
accumulation of adaptations the unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to a gradual change in populations
What are the scientific evidences of evolution? - Darwin in The Origin of Species - humans - fossil record -molecular -homology -convergent evolution -ontogeny -bio geography
Fossils -Pakicetus (terrestrial) -Rhodocetus (predominately aquatic) -Dorudon (fully aquatic) - Balaena (recent whale ancestor)
Species discrete groups differing in appearance, behavior, ecology, genetics, etc
population a localized group of individuals
gene a sequence of of nucleotide s producing a protein
allele alternate form of a gene
gene pool all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals in a population
microevolution change in allele frequencies within a population
macroevolution evolutionary change at the species level or higher
Causes of Microevolution -genetic drift -gene flow - mutations - non-random mating - natural selection
genetic drift change in gene frequencies of a population due to chance
Parts of genetic drift - bottleneck effect - founder effect
gene flow genetic exchange between populations
Modes of Natural Selection -stabilizing -directional -disruptive
Mechanisms of Speciation -Prezygotic -Postzygotic
Geographic Modes of Speciation - Allopatry vicariance - allopatry dispersal -parapatry -sympatry
Adaptive Radiation is rapid macro evolution of multiple species due to open many new niches
Current Distribution Interaction of: -Early history and place of origin -Fragments of continents -climatic changes -cooling and ice age -mass extinctions and adaptive radiations -land bridges
Deep time perspective 1. 4 Zoic Eras 2. Overview of Major Events 3. Historic Biogeography
5 Eras -paleozoic -proterozoic -archaean -cenozoic -mesozoic
The rise and fall of dominant groups reflect __, __, and __ continental drift; mass extinctions; and adaptive radiations
What happens to Earth through the process of continental drift? Earth's continents move slowly over the underlying hot mantle
What do plate interactions cause? mountains, islands, and earthquakes
Adaptive Radiation the evolution of many new species adapted from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environmental opportunities (new niches).
How does adaptive radiation occur? -evolution of novelty -after mass extinction -formation of new land -piggyback on other organisms
What were the challenges of Land? -structural support -dehydration -reproduction
Who proposes binomial nomenclature? Carl Linnaeus
Genus Species -allow biologists with different languages to communicate about organizations -biologists in distant locations can be certain they study the same (or different) organisms
Hierarchical system of classification -domain -kingdom -phylum -class -order -family -genus -species
Three Domain Classification -Domain Bacteria -Domain Archaea -Domain Eukarya
Metabolism consists of ____ autotrophs, heterotrophs, nitrogen
Reproduction binary fission, budding, sporulation
lysogenic cycle creates bursting daughter cells of bacteria
lytic cycle nucleic acids of virus break DNA of bacteria, takes over machinery to create protein coats.
Kingdoms in Eukarya -Protista -Animalia -Plantae -Fungi
Within individual variation -individual loci -chromosomes -organism
Among population variation Within population variation
Why is genetic variation important? essential for evolution to occur, and population dynamics is about likelyhood (normal distribution)
Bottleneck Effect -Disaster reduces population size so gene pool is reduced and unlikely to represent the original population. -By chance, some alleles will be over-or under represented and in some cases eliminated
Example of Bottleneck Effect Northern Elephant Seals, cheetahs
Founder Effect -A few individuals colonize an isolated island, lake etc. -Small gene pool unlikely to reflect variety of original population
Natural Selection Points -Differential reproductive success -Only mechanism likely to adapt a population to its environment -Heritable Variation – idea is central to Darwin’s theory -Evolutionary (Darwinian) Fitness -Selection acts on phenotypes – indirectly on genotypes
Prerequisites for Natural Selection -Trait Variation -Difference in fitness among traits -Inheritance -Sources of Variation
Created by: savepeople
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