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R&D vocab list 2

R&D virus through monohybrid

Bacteriophage a virus that parasitizes a bacteria by infecting it and reproducing inside it.
Chromosomes a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
Centromere point on a chromosome where mitotic spindle fibers attach to pull sister chromatids apart during cell division.
Daughter Cell produced after a single cell undergoes cell division.
Diploid cell or nucleus which contains two copies of genetic material
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a substance that carries genetic information in the cells of plants and animals
Spindle Fibers microscopic protein structures which help divide genetic material during cell division.
Adenine matches with Thymine in DNA and Uracil in mRNA
Guanine matches with Cytosine
Thymine matches with Adenine
Cytosine Matches with Guanine
Double helix the shape that DNA takes
Inherited to have (a characteristic, or trait) because of the genes that you get from your parents when you are born
Nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
G1 phase Phase period when cell growth and development occur
S phase DNA replication / synthesis occurs
G2 phase Phase when organelles needed in cell division are made last check before mitosis
Prophase 1st stage of mitosis nucleus breaks down
Metaphase 2nd stage of mitosis chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase 3rd stage of mitosis the spindle pulls apart the chromosomes
Telophase 4th stage of mitosis Two nuclear membranes form around the chromosomes still one cell but with two nuclei
Cytokinesis The cytoplasm pinches the cell in half. Two new identical cells with the same DNA in each nucleus is formed
Interphase the resting phase between mitosis divisions of a cell
Cell cycle the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
Meiosis The form of cell division by which gametes (sex cells), with half the number of chromosomes, are produced.
Gametes have half the number of chromosomes (sperm or egg)
Insertion One base is added or inserted into a DNA or RNA nucleotide sequence
Deletion One Base is removed or deleted
Substitution One base is changed. The other bases stay the same
Translocation One or more bases move to another area of the nucleotide sequence or chromosome
Duplication A COPY OF ONE OR MORE BASES are found
Inversion Two or more bases invert/flip in the nucleotide sequence
Point Mutation When a single base is changed
Frameshift Mutation When one or more bases changed, inserted or deleted
Translation the process of making a protein (polypeptide) by decoding the mRNA message
Transcription the process that makes a single-stranded RNA (messenger RNA) from double stranded DNA
mRNA carries nucleotide sequence from nucleus to ribosome
rRNA found in ribosome
tRNA picks up amino acid in cytoplasm and carries them to ribosome
Codon A set of three adjacent nucleotides, also called triplet
Amino Acid the building block or monomer of a protein
Virus a chain of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) which lives in a host cell, uses parts of the cellular machinery to reproduce, and releases the replicated nucleic acid chains to infect more cells.
Capsid the outer protein coat of a mature virus
Lytic Cycle named for the process of lysis, which occurs when a virus has infected a cell, replicated new virus particles, and bursts through the cell membrane, shorter cycle
Lysogenic Cycle a method by which a virus can replicate its DNA using a host cell, longer cycle
Pathogens anything that invade organisms and cause illness
Vaccines shots given to boost your immunity to a virus before you become infected
Gene sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and determines a trait.
Alleles alternate forms of genes. One comes from you mom and one comes from your dad.
Dominant allele is expressed even if it is paired with a recessive allele
Recessive allele only visible when paired with another recessive allele.
Genotype describe the genetic make-up (all of the genes) of an individual
Phenotype outward appearance of an individual
Punnett square used to show the possible combinations of gametes and allow us to determine the probability of an allele combination.
Monohyrid cross cross between two parents
Homozygous The genotypes are the same, example BB, bb
Heterozygous The genotypes are different, example Bb
Created by: Justin.magers



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