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Africa Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Africa test

QuestionAnswer
What were the Portuguese looking for when they FIRST landed in Africa? They were trying to find a route around Africa to India and the rest of Asia.
What were the reasons for European interest in Africa? Source of enslaved laborers who could be sent to colonies in Americas, raw materials and markets for goods manufactured, colonies (land), power, spread Christianity.
Why did missionaries come to Africa? To convert Africans to Christianity
What caused the "Scramble for Africa?" Competition between European nations to gain territory and colonies.
What countries in Africa were never colonized (remained independent)? Liberia and Ethiopia
How did Europeans view Africans? Uncivilized/needing to be saved
How did the Industrial Revolution influence European contact with Africa? European countries needed raw materials for manufacturing and the markets to sell goods produced.
How was Africa affected by colonialism? Natives were forced to assimilate to European ways; no thought was given to their culture or conflicts between groups. Some received indirect rule, others had colonial governments set up to rule them. Africans were forced to work, their resources taken.
How did Europeans make ethnic rivalries worse? They put ethnic groups together that did not get along and broke others apart.
What did Europeans believe about their status in relation to the Africans? They felt that their culture and way of life was superior to that of Africans.
What is assimilation? Giving up one's own culture and adoption of another country's culture, customs, and way of life.
What is a dictatorship? Harsh rule by persons who rule with total authority
In what ways can you see the culture of colonialism in African countries today? Countries modeled their governments after their mother country. Languages are still spoken based on who settled them. Civil wars and dictatorships were common due to how borders for new countries were drawn; Government instability has led to problems.
What was the Berlin Conference and what was its purpose? A meeting held in 1884 by the leaders of the major countries of Europe to decide how to divide the land in Africa to avoid fighting over the lands; the major outcome was agreement on which European country controlled which parts of Africa.
What was the Pan African Movement? A movement that called for unity among African people in reaction to the terrible experiences of colonial rule; its goal was for people of African descent around the world to think of Africa as a homeland.
What is a Nationalist movement? Movement of people who want freedom from another country; their goal is independence from outside foreign countries
Why are there unstable governments in Africa? When Europeans withdrew from their African colonies, they did not help the people set up stable governments. Africans were not prepared for self-rule. Borders for new countries followed colonial boundaries resulting in ethnic clashes.
What is the difference between water scarcity and water stress? the amount of water available per person per year - water scarcity is a worse problem because there isn't enough water per person where as water stress is where the available water is pulled to its limits
What is an ethnic group? A group of people who share the same cultural ideas and beliefs that have been part of their community for generations.
What is a religious group? A group of people who share a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature.
Who are the Bantu? They were responsible for one of the largest movements of people in African history; they blended their culture and traditions throughout Southern and Eastern Africa. They practice Islam, animism, and Christianity.
Who are the Swahili? They can be found along the coast of East Africa and are a blending of Arabic and Bantu languages. They are mostly Muslim and live in cities.
Who are the Arabs? They originally arrived in North Africa and spread Arabic language and religion of Islam throughout Africa. A majority can be found along the Mediterranean Sea and along the Indian Ocean in East Africa.
What is colony? A settlement set up by a country outside its borders.
The brutal civil wars and massacres in Rwanda were between which 2 groups? Hutu and Tutsi
What continents were involved in the Transatlantic Slave Trade? Africa, North and South America, Europe
How many slaves were taken from Africa by Europeans? Between 10 and 12 million
What is the concept of one country controlling other governments, economies, and territories called? Imperialism
Which 2 European countries controlled the most colonies or territory in Africa? Great Britain and France
What were the three main reasons for European imperialism in Africa? Gold, gospel, and glory
How was slavery in African different from slavery in the Americas? African slaves could buy their freedom, they could marry, and they were not born into slavery.
____________________ is the seizure of a country or territory by another stronger country. Imperialism
True or False - Slavery in Africa was the same as in the Americas. False
True or False - Native Americans were never used as slaves in the Americas because they were able to overpower the Europeans. False
True or False - The Transatlantic Trade was also called "Triangle Trade" because of its route. True
True or False - When creating boundaries in Africa, Europeans consulted with Africans. False
True or False - In Rwanda, the Belgian government required people to carry identity cards to tell what tribe they belonged to. True
Who were the Ashanti? An ethnic group that believed in the Golden Stool and practiced either Christianity or animism/traditional African religions; they live mainly in Ghana
How did Europeans "control" Africa/Africans? Through the use of indirect rule, forced assimilation
Who founded the country of Liberia? Former slaves that had been freed
How did Nigeria gain their independence? Through peaceful means and negotiations with Britain - Britain bowed to pressure allowing Nigerians to form political parties and allowed them to vote
Who were the Mau Mau and what was their goal? The Mau Mau was a secret organization that believed the only way to win Kenyan rights and independence was through the use of force.
What was the KAU (KNAU) and what was their goal? The Kenyan African National Union is a political party led initially by Jomo Kenyatta in 1960; it was formed in preparation for independence. The KNAU was the ruling party for 40 years in Kenya.
What was the ANC and what was their goal? The African National Congress was a group that wanted equal rights for blacks of S Africa; they protested apartheid and were led by Nelson Mandela
Why was Kenya not colonized for hundreds of years? There was fierce warrior tribes who lived in Kenya
What was the government of Kenya like after independence? There were several coups and dictatorships following independence
How did the independence movement in Kenya begin? Nationalism lead to the Kenyans feeling that their land was taken unfairly. Kenyan support for the Mau Mau led to British withdrawal from Kenya.
Who was Jomo Kenyatta? The first elected president of Kenya
Who was Abubakar? Nigeria’s first leader after independence who was killed in a coup.
What is apartheid? An organized system where races are segregated by law
What is assimilation? Giving up one's own culture and adopting another's country's culture, way of life, and customs
What are homelands? Areas where black South Africans were relocated based on their ethnic group; they had to carry passports to leave their homeland for any reason
Who was Nelson Mandela? First black democratically elected president of South Africa (chosen by blacks and whites) once apartheid had ended--199
Where was Nelson Mandela jailed for 18 years? Robben Island
Created by: darcymcfarlane
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