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Africa Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Africa test

What were the Portuguese looking for when they FIRST landed in Africa? They were trying to find a route around Africa to India and the rest of Asia.
What were the reasons for European interest in Africa? Source of enslaved laborers who could be sent to colonies in Americas, raw materials and markets for goods manufactured, colonies (land), power, spread Christianity.
Why did missionaries come to Africa? To convert Africans to Christianity
What caused the "Scramble for Africa?" Competition between European nations to gain territory and colonies.
What countries in Africa were never colonized (remained independent)? Liberia and Ethiopia
How did Europeans view Africans? Uncivilized/needing to be saved
How did the Industrial Revolution influence European contact with Africa? European countries needed raw materials for manufacturing and the markets to sell goods produced.
How was Africa affected by colonialism? Natives were forced to assimilate to European ways; no thought was given to their culture or conflicts between groups. Some received indirect rule, others had colonial governments set up to rule them. Africans were forced to work, their resources taken.
How did Europeans make ethnic rivalries worse? They put ethnic groups together that did not get along and broke others apart.
What did Europeans believe about their status in relation to the Africans? They felt that their culture and way of life was superior to that of Africans.
What is Social Darwinism? A loose set of ideologies that emerged in the late 1800's in which Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was used to justify certain political, social, or economic views (i.e. Survival of the fittest man)
What is the philosophy of the "White Man's Burden?" The task that white colonizers believed they had to impose their civilization on the black inhabitants of their colonies.
In what ways can you see the culture of colonialism in African countries today? Countries modeled their governments after their mother country. Languages are still spoken based on who settled them. Civil wars and dictatorships were common due to how borders for new countries were drawn; Government instability has led to problems.
What was the Berlin Conference and what was its purpose? A meeting held in 1884 by the leaders of the major countries of Europe to decide how to divide the land in Africa to avoid fighting over the lands; the major outcome was agreement on which European country controlled which parts of Africa.
What was the Pan African Movement? A movement that called for unity among African people in reaction to the terrible experiences of colonial rule; its goal was for people of African descent around the world to think of Africa as a homeland.
How has HIV/AIDS affected Africa? Africa has the highest infection rates in the world for the disease. Millions of orphans have been left behind. Poor heath care, poverty, lack of education, and lack of government organization have made the issue worse.
Why are there unstable governments in Africa? When Europeans withdrew from their African colonies, they did not help the people set up stable governments. Africans were not prepared for self-rule. Borders for new countries followed colonial boundaries resulting in ethnic clashes.
What is the difference between water scarcity and water stress? the amount of water available per person per year - water scarcity is a worse problem because there isn't enough water per person where as water stress is where the available water is pulled to its limits
What is an ethnic group? A group of people who share the same cultural ideas and beliefs that have been part of their community for generations.
What is a religious group? A group of people who share a belief system in a god or gods, with a specific set of rituals and literature.
Who are the Bantu? They were responsible for one of the largest movements of people in African history; they blended their culture and traditions throughout Southern and Eastern Africa. They practice Islam, animism, and Christianity.
Who are the Swahili? They can be found along the coast of East Africa and are a blending of Arabic and Bantu languages. They are mostly Muslim and live in cities.
Who are the Arabs? They originally arrived in North Africa and spread Arabic language and religion of Islam throughout Africa. A majority can be found along the Mediterranean Sea and along the Indian Ocean in East Africa.
Created by: darcymcfarlane