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Cardiovascular System Function

Where is the heart located? In the mediastinum
What membranes enclose the heart? 3 pericardial membranes
What are the pericardial membranes called? outer- fibrous pericardium mid- parietal pericardium inner-epicardium or visceral pericardium
What prevents friction between the three layers of the pericardial sac? serous fluid
What are the upper chambers of the heart called? the atria
what are the lower chambers of the heart called? the ventricles
Which has thicker walls the atria or the ventricles ? ventricles
Which of the ventricles has thicker wall right or left ; why left because it is pumping the blood back into the body
what are the valves called that separate the atria and ventricles? right-tricuspid and left is mitral valve
What is the "pacemaker" of the heart? the SA node
What is the rate of depolarization of the SA node? 60-80 per minute
If the AV node initiates a heartbeat what is its rate? 40-60 beats per minute
If the bundle of His gereates the heartbeat what is its rate? 15-40 bpm
What causes the cardiac sounds S1 and S2 (or lub-dupp) The closure of the AV valves during ventricular systole for S1 and the S2 is created by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves
What is cardiac output? the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in 1 minute
What is ejection fraction? a measure of ventricular efficiency
What is the usual Ejection fraction of hte haert (EF)? 60 %
What are the two centers in the medulla called? the accelerator and inhibitory centers
Where are pressoreceptors and chemoreceptors located? in the carotid arteries and the aortic arch
Epinephrine is secreted by the...? adrenal medulla
What is epinephrine's function in the cardiac system? increases the HR and force of contraction and dilates the coronary vessels
What does Aldosterone do in relation to the cardiac system? it helps regulate blood levels of sodium and potassium
Where is ANP secreted? look it up !
What does ANP do? increases excretion of sodium by the kidneys
What causes ANP secretion? high blood pressure or greater blood volume that streches the walls of the atria
What regulates the diameter of arteries? sympathetic nervous system
Where are valves most numerous in the circulatory syste? in the legs to carry blood back to the heart without backflow
Why are capillaries one cell wall thick? to permit the exhanges of gases and nutrients and waste products between the blood and tissues
How is edema causes in relation to capillaries? blood pressure within the capillaries increase then more tissue fluid than usual is formed and is too much for the lymph system to handle so it is not carried away and causes edema
If the heart beats very fast what happens to cardiac output? it decreases
why does cardiac output decrease when the HR is very fast? because the ventricles are not filled before they contract
What affects venous return? constriction of veins so that blood does not pool, skeletal muscle pumping to squeeze the dep veins of the legs and muslces of respiration compressing and expanding veins in the chest cavity
If blood flow through the kidneys what happens to preserve blood volume? the low BP stimulates the kidneys to secrete renin which will initiate renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism.
What are the two pathways of circulation pulmonary and systemic
Where does pumonary circulation begin? right ventricle
Where does systemic circulation begin? in the left ventricle
What is the purpose of hepatic portal circulation? the liver regulates the blood levels of of nutrients and remove toxins
What nutrients does the liver regulate in hepatic portal circulation? glucose, amino acids, and iron
What is atherosclerosis? deposits of lipids on and in the walls of the arteries
What is arteriosclerosis? gradual deterioration of walls of arteries
Who has the greatest risk for CHD? mexican - american men and african american women
What is a normal change in orthostatic BP and pulse? bp-15mm/hg drop and pulse increases 15-20 bpm
What is another name for orthostatic hypotension? postural hypotension
What does a pulse quality of 2+ mean? normal pulse quality
What is a thready pulse? one that disappears when slight pressure is applied and returns when pressure is removed
What is a thrill? a vibration in the vessel felt on palpation
What is a bruit? humming heard on on auscultation of a vessel as a result of turbulent blood flow
What does pink frothy sputum indicate? acute heart failure
What is clubbing of the nails? nailbeds swell due to oxygen deprivation
What is rubor? reddish brown discoloration found in LE
What does rubor indicate? decreased arterial blood flow
How do the LE present on venous insufficiency? brown , cyanotic
What is JVD? jugular vein distention
What is the most common cause of JVD? right sided heart failure
What does a cap refill of >3 sec indicate? anemial or decrease in blood flow to the extremity
What causes a pericardial friction rub? inflammation of the pericardium
What position would you have a patient be in to best hear the friction rub? sitting and leaning forward
Where would you best hear a friction rub? left of the sternum
What is troponin? protein found only in cardiac cells
What does an elevated troponin indicate? myocardial damage
how soon after damage does the troponin increase? 4-6 hours
When do troponin levels peak? 10-24 hours after damage
How long after damage do the troponin levels remain high? 7 days
What cardiac enzymes are released after myocardial damage? CK,CPK,LDH
Why are CK, CPK less indicative of myocardial damage? because these are enzymes that are found in other tissues as well as cardiac so elevations may be result of other than cardiac damage
What information can a lipid profile provide? screen for increased risk for coronary artery disease
High levels of what is linked to an increase in CAD? LDL
Created by: Kelly Quijano
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