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Chap 3 / Unit 1

Nutrition (Leaving Cert Exam Questions)

Two reasons why living organisms require food? As a source of energy or for growth
Polysaccharide A carbohydrate composed of many sugar units
Main structure of polysaccharide (In plants)? Cellulose or Starch
Describe a triglyceride (It's biomolecular components) Is one molecule of glycerol linked to three fatty acids
Structural role of lipids? Found in the cell membrane
What chemicals do you use to see the presence of protein? Biuret Solution or copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide
Structural role of Proteins? Keratin or myosin
Where in the body could you find keratin / myosin? Hair and nails / Muscle
Give a role of magnesium / calcium in plants Helps form chlorophyll / helps cell walls to attach to each other
Why is water required for organism? Is a good solvent or can help with transport or helps reactions take place
What metallic element is present haemoglobin? Iron (Fe)
What chemicals do you use to see the presence of reducing sugars? Benedict's or Fehling's solution
Non-metallic element found in protein? Carbon (C) or Hydrogen (H) or Oxygen (O) or Nitrogen (N) or Sulfur (S)
Metabolic role of protein? Used as enzyme to control reactions or some hormones are protein based
Where are phospholipids found? Membrane
Give a role of iron / calcium in animals Helps form haemoglobin / helps form bones and teeth
Approximate amount of water by mass for human cell / plant cell? 70 - 95% / 90%
What may you use as a control substance? Water
For the reducing sugar test what the positive / negative result? Red / Blue
What is the simplest unit of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides
What catabolic process produce monosaccharides? Digestion
Carbohydrates (e.g monosaccharides) is Cx(H2O)y. What is y? 6
Carbohydrate found in DNA? Deoxyribose
Phospholipid structure Two fatty acid with a phophate and glycerol
A fat-soluble vitamin Vitamin D
Deficiency in vitamin D Rickets or osteomalacia
Examples of monosaccharide Glucose or fructose
Examples of disaccharide Maltose or sucrose
Examples of polysaccharide Starch or cellulose or glycogen
Amino Acids Building block of protein
What is the difference between fat and solids? Fat is solid at room temperature while oil is liquid at room temperature
Carbohydrate is made of? Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)
Why are lipids and carbohydrates similar? They both contain Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)
What can you test with Sudan III or brown paper? Lipids
How many common amino acids are found in protein? 20
Trace element Are elements that we only need a tiny amount of
Examples of a trace element Iron (Fe) or Copper (Cu) or Zinc (Z)
An example of a catabolic reaction Respiration or Digeston
In carbohydrates what's 2:1? Hydrogen and Oxygen
How much do you need heat the reducing sugar? Heat but do not boil
What is Anabolic reactions? Uses energy to convert smaller molecules into smaller ones
What is Catabolic reactions? Energy broken own to a smaller form (releases energy)
An example of an anabolic reaction (In plants) Photosynthesis
An example of a reducing sugar Maltose or Glucose
Deficiency in vitamin C Scurvy
Created by: Aimee214